Difference Between Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine [Notes & PDF]

The main difference between the Impulse and Reaction turbine is that the Impulse turbine works at atmospheric pressure and the Reaction Turbine works at above atmospheric pressure.

In this article, I have listed a total of 21 points on differences for you and words are easy to understand.

The best parts?

I have explained in simple and understandable words. You can score maximum marks in your exam or interview on these topics.

Let’s start with Impulse Turbine first,

Impulse Turbine:

An impulse turbine is a turbine in which the high velocity of water strikes the bucket directly. The impulse type of turbine is used in hydropower plants for the generation of electricity.

You can read more about Impulse Turbine here.

Reaction turbine:

The reaction turbine operates on Newton’s third law of motion. How? let me explain to you, A reaction turbine develops torque by reacting to the pressure or weight of a fluid. You can Read Reaction Turbine in detail.

Here is a simple diagram you can understand and get some idea from the diagram:

Difference between Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine
Difference between Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine

Difference between Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine:

Sl No.Impulse TurbineReaction Turbine
1.An example of an Impulse turbine is the Pelton wheel turbine. An example of a Reaction turbine is the Kaplan Turbine and Francis Turbine.
2.This type of turbine consists of moving blades and nozzles.Here reaction turbine consists of fixed blades that act as a moving blade and nozzle.
3.Steam is expanded in the nozzle and for that, all the pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy.In the reaction turbine, steam is partially expanded in the fixed blades. Only some amount of kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy.
4.Therefore Pressure of steam is constant here over the moving blades.But here the Pressure of steam is not constant here.
5.Low efficiency.High efficiency.
6.It occupies less space per unit of power. It occupies more space per unit of power.
7.Impulse Turbine operates at higher water heads.The reaction turbine operates at lower or medium water heads.
8.The blades are symmetrical.The blades are not symmetrical.
9.The steam impinges on the bucket with kinetic energy.Here the steam glides over the moving vanes with kinetic and pressure energy.
10.Without a loss flow regulation is possible. With the loss, the flow regulation is done.
11.The unit is installed above the tailrace. The unit is installed below the tailrace which means completely submerged in water.
12.In front of the nozzle, only the blades are in action.Here the blades are in action with all the time and side.
13.The steam velocity is very high and therefore the speed of the turbine is high. The steam velocity is not very high and therefore the speed of the turbine is low.
14.In an Impulse turbine, The steam may or may not be admitted over the whole circumference.But in the Reaction Turbine, the steam pressure is reduced during the flow-through blades.
15.Impulse turbine: Water is discharged directly from the turbine wheel to the tailrace.First, it discharges into a Draft tube and then to the tailrace.
16.The blade efficiency curved is less flat. The blade efficiency curved is flatter.
17.Maintenance is easy here. The maintenance of this turbine is not easy here.
18.There is no draft tube here. butIn the Reaction turbine, there is a draft tube.
19.The degree of reaction is zero.The degree of reaction is zero or one.
20.The impulse turbine is suitable for low discharge. The reaction turbine is suitable for medium or High discharge.
21.The impulse turbine works at atmospheric pressure.But the Reaction turbine works at the above atmospheric pressure.
Impulse Turbine vs Reaction Turbine

This is toat 21 Point on Impulse turbine vs Reaction Turbine.

Let me know if you understand or not by using the comment box and also please let me know another topic you want explanations in detail.

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Conclusion:

Here we finally studied all the Difference Between Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine in detail. I hope you have understood this topic in detail. If yes then do not forget to share with your friends and family.

I have also explained the different topics of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. If you want to read you can go through the URL attached above or you can search.

Question and Answer:

What is an impulse turbine?

An impulse turbine is a turbine in which the high velocity of water strikes the bucket directly. The impulse type of turbine is used in hydropower plants for the generation of electricity.

What is a reaction turbine?

The reaction turbine operates on Newton’s third law of motion. A reaction turbine develops torque by reacting to the pressure or weight of a fluid.

Which is a more efficient impulse or reaction turbine?

The impulse turbine is more efficient.

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Er. Amrit Kumar

Amrit Kumar is a Mechanical Engineer and founder of Themechanicalengineering.com. I have done a Diploma and Engineering degree in Mechanical and writes content since 2016.

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