Reciprocating Pump: Definition, Working Diagram, Parts or Construction, Application, [Notes with PDF]

What is Pumping system?

The pumping terminology is that to get the delivery of fluids or water from a given head to the required head by the help of the suction pipes and delivery pipe, the pumping is done by different method by rotation or by reciprocating in these two method the procedure is same but the method which is used in pumping is different depending upon requirement.

What is reciprocating Pumping System?

Reciprocating pump is the method of delivery of fluid by using the method of reciprocation and this is done by an arrangement that is piston cylinders arrangement. In reciprocating pump every function or working is similar to other pumping method inspect of that the method of reciprocation. Reciprocating pumping is displacement of fluid in positive manner and in reciprocating pump the fluid is closed into the cylinder arrangements and it is done by applying a required pressure for it to deliver as per the requirement it is better or more suitable for delivery of low amount of water at greater pressure it’s application is to get fluid at a higher pressure. From the word reciprocating the phenomenon is clear that the arrangements works in to and fro from there required position. This is widely used to deliver it at low head and from its reciprocating character it hold a positive way of delivery of fluid and water.

Components which is used in reciprocating pumping system

Components that are more popularly used in the reciprocating pump are as follows-

1) The pipe used for suction (Suction pipe)

2) The pipe used for delivery (Delivery pipe)

3) The valve used in suction (Suction valve)

4 )The valve used in delivery that is delivery valve

5) Piston for to and fro working

6) Cylinder for collection of fluid into it.

7) Strainer

8) Vessel to collect air (Air vessel)

9) Crank and connecting rod of piston

1) Suction pipe

The suction pipe is used to get hold the water and fluid from the inlet of the source to get it into the cylinder of the system and hold it to process in the terminology of the system and get it to deliver at a required point of the system.

2) Suction Valve

Suction valve is the valve which is used to tap the fluid or water into the system of suction pipe. It make the flow of fluid in uni-direction as per the required of fluid. The placement of suction valve is done into the suction pipe and the cylinder of the system where the fluid is store for the further process.

3) Delivery pipe

Delivery pipe make a connection between pump and the exit of the system, the liquid that are inlet from the suction pipe is deliver from this pipe and after that it is on the required head. The liquid is at that point where it required from the system.

4) Delivery valve

Delivery valve is also similar as the suction valve it is also non return valve or single way of delivery of liquid from the pipe its closed when it suction and it open when the liquid is discharge.

5) Piston

Piston is a cylindrical arrangement and by using this the liquid is stored into cylinder by sucking the fluid and the fluid is pressed at a required pressure and the pressure is maintained by this pistion into the arrangement.

6) Cylinder

A spaced cylinder made of alloys or iron. A combination of piston with cylinder is done into the cylinder its shows the capacity of the system both suction and delivery is done into this cylinder. The capacity may be in litre or in cubic meter.

7) Strainer

Strainer is given into the starting of the process in inlet or after the suction pipe to stop the entrance of waste or small particles of sand or rocks which may damage the system or delivery of impure liquid.

8) Air Vessel

Air vessel is attached with exit and open of the system to prevent it from friction head during the process of working.

9) Crank and connecting piston

Crank is disc like structure which is used in process to deliver power from the source to the system it is connected to motor to deliver the power to the system, rotation motion or reciprocating motion is come with the help of it.

Working of Reciprocating pump?

The process on which reciprocating pump work are as follows-

  • When we on the energy the power on which is interlinked with the crank, The system or the crank will start revolving and the rod which is connecting rod start move or displace with the moment of crank
  • The cylinder piston arrangement in which piston start moving in parallel direction in linear way in such a way that when piston moves outward and crank move right.
  • The suction is generated and then vacuum is created into the cylinder arrangement to get liquid suck from the source and it get in by suction pipe.
  • By the movement of crank in such a way that inward or outward of the cylinder arrangement the piston move and put a pressure into the liquid.
  • With the help of this pressure and the water or liquid pressure the outlet valve which is delivery valve is open and the liquid is gets discharge at a required head.
  • When piston is at extreme all the liquid which is there in the cylinder is deliver to the delivery pipe to the outlet.
  • This process is respected again and again to deliver a required quantity of water in a required head.
  • The rotation of crank is observed at a required speed to deliver the water at a required pressure or at a required head.

The above is the process and working of reciprocating pump.

Where Reciprocating pump is used?

1)Reciprocating pump is used in oil and gas related company for delivery of oil and gas at a required head.

2) Petrochemical industry and refinery process industry

3)It is also used in boiler for delivery of water especially when it is required at high pressure.

4) Delivery of water in hilly area mostly in Reciprocating pump is used.

5)In agriculture for cultivation of seeds and for pouring water in vegetables.

6) Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump so it used mostly in delivery of pipe at low head at high pressure.

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Er. Amrit Kumar

Amrit Kumar is a Mechanical Engineer and founder of He has done a Diploma and Engineering degree in Mechanical and writes content since 2016.

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