Today we will study the Definition, Construction or Main Parts, Working Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Application of Locomotive Boiler in detail.
Note: You can download the PDF of this articles at the end.
As the name suggests it is mainly employed in the locomotives though it may be used as a stationary boiler. It is compact in construction and its stream production rate is very high.
Now coming to our main topic Definition,
Locomotive boiler Definition:
Table of Contents
A locomotive boiler is a multi-tubular boiler and it has a horizontal drum axis. The circulation in the locomotive boiler is natural, also it is a medium pressure boiler, the draft is artificial, forced circulation, mobile, solid fuel fired fire tube boiler.
It is an external fire boiler and it has a large fire space. The locomotive boiler consists of a horizontal shell and this shell consists of a number of fire tubes.
The fuel is burned here and the flue gases pass through the shell on the other side, there is a stake locomotive boiler. It does not have a chimney and they have stacks on the other side and flue gases are removed through the stake.
Locomotive Boiler Main Parts or Construction:
Locomotive Boiler Consists of following Main Parts:
Water Level Indicator
Flues or Tubes:
A large part of the locomotive boiler is composed of flues or tubes. The flues give to the boiler the largest part of its heating surface. Tubes are made up of carbon molybdenum steel, 18-8 Cr Ni steel.
It is the flues that largely affect the life of the boiler and that is why it is the life of the locomotive, for this reason, it is quite necessary to properly install and maintain them.
The grate is made up of a set of parallel bars at the bottom of the fire-box, which hold the fuel. it is made of cast iron and constructed in sections of 3-4 bars each.
They are supported at their ends by resting upon a frame and are connected by rods to a lever which can be moved back and forth to rack the bars and shake ashes and cinders out of the fire.
Ash pans are suspended beneath the fire-box for the purpose of catching and carrying the ashes. Coal that may drop between the grate bars is also corrected by an ash pan. They are made of sheet steel.
A longitudinal section of an ash pan is commonly used in fire-boxes placed between the axles of the engine. It is provided at each end with a damper hinged at the top and which may be opened and set in any desired position in order to regulate the flow of air to the fire.
It is quite important that the dampers should be in good condition in order that the admission of air to the file may be regulated. The total unobstructed air openings in the ash pan need not exceed the total tube area.
Draft receives power for doing this work from the exhaust steam from the cylinders. The work which it performs consists of drawing air through the ash pan, grates, fire, fire door, and other openings, then continues its work by drawing the gases of combustion through the flues of the boiler into the front end.
Pressure must be maintained less than the atmosphere in the smoke-box. The difference in pressure between the atmosphere and the smokebox is called a draft.
The diaphragm or deflector plate is an iron plate placed obliquely over a portion of the front end of the flues which deflects the flue gases downward before entering the stack, thus equalizing to a great extent the draft in the different flues.
This deflector plate may be adjusted to deflect the gases more or less as desired.
The stack is one of the most important features of the front end. Many different forms and proportions of stacks have been employed but at the present time, only two general types are found in use to any great extent, namely, the straight and tapered stacks.
The draft pipe is employed to increase the draft and may be used singly or in multiple and raised or lowered as desired.
Smoke-Box and Front End Arrangement:
By the term front end is meant all that portion of the boiler beyond the front tube sheet and includes the cylindrical shell of the boiler and all the parts contained therein such as the steam or branch pipes, exhaust nozzle, netting, diaphragm, and draft
The universal practice at present is to use at least two safety valves of the pop type upon every locomotive boiler. On small locomotives where clearances will permit, the safety valves are placed in the dome cap.
On large locomotives where the available height of the dome is limited, the safety valves are usually placed on a separate turret. When limiting heights will not permit the use of turrets, the safety valves may be screwed directly into the roof of the boiler.
A brick arch is an arrangement placed in the fire-box to effect better combustion and to secure a more even distribution of the hot gases in their passage through the tubes.
A longitudinal section of the fire-box is fitted with a brick arch and the method of action is very simple. It acts as a mixer of the products of combustion with the air and as a reflector of the radiant heat of the fire and the escaping gases.
It is maintained at a very high temperature and in this condition meets the air and gases as they come in contact with it and turns them back to the narrow opening.
This action, maintains a sufficiently high temperature to burn with the smallest possible quantity of air.
Water level indicator:
The water level indicator is used to indicate the water level in the boiler and to maintain the water at a constant level because the production of steam majorly depends on the quantity of water.
In case the water level is below the normal level then water will be pumped from the reservoir by the operator.
Locomotive Boiler Working Principle:
The locomotive boiler consists of a cylindrical barrel with a rectangular box at one end and a smokebox at the other end. The coal is introduced through the fire hole in the great which is placed at the bottom of the firebox.
The hot gases which are generated due to the burning of the coal are deflected by an arch of fire bricks, so that the walls of the firebox may be heated properly.
The firebox is entirely surrounded by water except for the fire hole and the ash pit which is situated below the firebox which is fitted with dampers at its front and back ends.
The dampers control the flow of air to the great. Hot gases move from the firebox to the smokebox through a series of fire tubes and through the chimney they are discharged into the atmosphere.
The fire tubes are placed inside the barrel. Some of these tubes are of larger diameter and others of smaller diameter. Tubes of superheater are placed inside the fire tubes of larger diameter.
The heating value of the hot gases is transmitted into the water by heating the surface of the fire tubes. The steam generated is collected over the water surface. A dome-shaped chamber known as the steam dome is fitted on the upper part of the barrel, from where the stream flows through a steam pipe into the chamber.
It passes through the superheater tubes and returns to the superheated steam chamber from which it is led to the cylinder through the pipes, one to each cylinder.
The boiler itself is moving with a very high velocity from 60 kilometers per hour to 70 kilometers per hour.
So there is always a movement of air over this stake and if you use Bernoulli’s theorem you can find a temperature drop and there is a substantial pressure drop between this grate.
The movement of the fluid pressure drop takes place so the chimney is not required in such boilers.
Locomotive Boiler Video:
Advantages of Locomotive Boiler:
The following advantages of Locomotive Boiler are:
High steam capacity
Low cost of construction
Portability is easy.
Low installation cost
Compact in design.
Disadvantages of Locomotive Boiler:
The following disadvantages of Locomotive Boiler are:
Chances of corrosion and scale formation
Difficult to clean some parts
Need bracing for large parts
It cannot carry overloads that create overheating and damage.
Application of Locomotive Boiler:
The locomotive boiler is used at various places some of their application are:
Here we studied Locomotive Boiler in detail. If you want to read other different types of boilers just search it. Till then if this article helps you please share it with your friends and family. Thank you for reading.
14 Different Types of Screwdriver Explained in detail [Notes & PDF]
The screwdriver is a tooling agent that can be manual or power and it is used for screwing and unscrewing screws. Its shaft is made up of tough steel to resist twisting and bending.
A simple screwdriver consists of a handle and a shaft, that ends with a tip and for the user, it puts into the screw head before turning the handle.
A simple form of the screwdriver has been replaced in many workplaces and homes with a more modern and versatile tool, a Power Drill because they are quicker easier, and can drill holes too.
Now we are going to study different types of screwdrivers in every detail,
Different Types of Screwdriver:
Table of Contents
The following 14different types of Screwdriver are following:
Flat Head or Slotted Head Screwdriver
Hex Screwdriver or Hexagon Screwdriver
Robertson or Square Screwdriver
Clutch Head or Bow Tie Screwdriver
Frearson or Reed and Prince Screwdriver
Hex Socket or hex screw drive
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard)
Right Angle Screwdriver
#1. Flat Head or Slotted Head Screwdriver:
A flat-head screwdriver has a wedge-shaped flat tip that is used to tighten or loosen screws that have a straight and linear notch on their heads. This is arguably the most common tool in the mechanical field and the ubiquitous flat-head screwdriver.
This comes in every shape with a handle attached to a steel shaft that is flattened into a wedge shape at the tip.
While flat head screws aren’t used extensively in residential construction anymore, they can still find them in furniture construction, small cabinetmaking projects, and some electrical applications.
It is installed with plate covers on outlets and switches and also where it’s not to over-tighten a screw.
These screwdriver bits are used for ratcheting screwdrivers and drills, it is labeled by both the size of the tip and the length of the steel shank.
Tip sizes vary, from fractions of millimeters (which are tiny enough to tighten eyeglass screws) up to an inch or larger (fit for industrial size screws).
#2. Phillips Screwdriver:
Phillips screws, identifiable by a plus on their heads, are widely used for construction and woodworking purposes. It is also the crosshead screwdriver when the X-shape blade fits into the head cavity snugly so it provides better traction when tightening or loosening the screw.
It is used with power tools originally, electronics standards are also set.
A screwdriver manually works fine when it has just one or two screws to install, but construction projects use a number of screws notoriously. Option for a power drill with interchangeable Phillips bits for the most efficient build.
Best For Multipurpose building and remodeling, especially drywall installation. This screwdriver with a power cord is designed to install Phillips drywall screws specifically.
In Philips screwdriver pre-set the screw depth takes place and eliminates chances of under-or over-inserting a drywall screw.
We can fit the screwdriver deeper into the screw head and there is no blade sliding out sideways. These drivers are intentionally designed to slip out of the head when a certain torque limit is exceeded, which depends upon strength and weakness.
#3. Torx Screwdriver:
Torx screw is the favorite of builders and serious DIYers and it is sometimes called the star screw. It has a 6-point recessed star tip in sizes that range from 0.031” to 0.81” and are designated by T numbers (from T1 to T100).
The most common sizes are T15 and T25, and it is fitted in every size available. Power drill users like Torx screws for the same reason they like Robertson screws because they resist slippage with power application.
Torx screws are commonly used for structural framing, finish work, and even as wood-to-concrete fasteners. It features magnetic bits that assist in keeping the screws in place on the drill tip.
#4. Hex Screwdriver or Hexagon Screwdriver:
Screwdrivers and bits come in size to fit the hex-head screw recesses from around 0.03” to 3/8”. Hex-head screws are small in size and commonly found in doorknobs, towel bars, and some mechanical installations.
The designs consist of a tapered square-tipped screwdriver that fits into a matching square recess in the screw head.
It requires a hex key screwdriver also known as an Allen screwdriver to tighten or loosen.
Allen-type screwdrivers are L- or T-shaped screwdrivers, also Allen bits are come for ratcheting screwdrivers and drills.
For example, Installing small fixtures such as towel bars. It pays to have a variety of tip sizes available in the market. Allen Hex Screwdriver Xcelite’s 11-piece set has interchangeable Allen bits in sizes ranging from 0.050”- 3/16” also it has an optional extension bar for restricted spots. It is the fastening system that would provide a firmer hold and less slippage than conventional slotted screws and screwdrivers.
#5. Robertson or Square Screwdriver:
This is the least common of the common screwdrivers and has perhaps the highest torque tolerance of all drive types.
Squarehead screws are commonly found in the automotive and furniture industries because of their durability.
Cushion grip is provided for better handling and skips the slippage and quick driver size identification. It has a precision machine tip for exact fit.
It has an integral flange inside the handle providing a better solid twist-resistant blade anchor.
#6. Pozidriv Screwdriver:
Pozidriv also is known as “Pozidrive”. It is an improved variation of the Phillips drive design. The company GKN Screws and Fasteners created the Pozidriv design after the patent for Phillips’s head expired.
The Pozidriv drive style was originally formed to solve the issue come in Phillips screwdrivers that are prone to cam-out. The slipping out of a drive recess that occurs when torque exceeds a certain limit is called cam-out.
The Pozidriv drive has the same design as a Phillips drive style of self-centering. Increased torque without cam-out and Greater surface contact engagement between the drive and the recess in the fastener head making it harder to slip are the main features.
Pozidriv screws can be used like Phillips screws but are easily available. This drive is still extremely popular in manufacturing due to its self-centering design.
It provides a balance of strength and efficiency also its handle is designed for faster rotation in low-torque applications, for a comfortable grip and higher performance.
The screwdrivers are packaged that can easily be stored in a tool chest for storage.
#7. Clutch Head or Bow Tie Screwdriver:
Clutch head screws have got design changes from the last few years. The slots resemble a bow tie, with the older version having a circular recess in the middle. They have application in the automotive industry as they are popular in recreational vehicles.
A clutch head screwdriver will have better torque with these heads and are designed with slotted drives a security version of a clutch screwdriver that can be screwed one way with a slotted screwdriver. It cannot be easily removed.
These are found mostly in places where maintenance is infrequent, such as bus stations or prisons. Helical-cut steel, heat-treated steel gears for long life.
#8. Frearson or Reed and Prince Screwdriver:
At first glance, this variation of the screwdriver is the same as Phillips but has some important differences.
The tip of a Frearson comes to a sharp point, as compared to the Phillips has a rounded point. the angle of the tip is closer to a 45-degree angle than on a Phillips.
The Frearson screwdriver due to its shape allows for higher torque than a Phillips and the ability to carry just one drive.
Its main applications are in nautical equipment where precision and a smaller set of tools are required. Frearson (Reed and Prince) screwdriver bits from Cooper Tools.
It avoids typical problems such as shattering and premature bit wear. In the power tool, applications insert bits are commonly used with a bit holder. This combination is economical, provides flexibility, and allows a fastener to be magnetically held by the bit. It is placed directly into the power tool chuck.
Acetate handle is impact and chemical resistant. Serrated tip for maximum grip and reduced slippage. Blades are forged from high-strength alloy steel Ergonomic acetate handle is impervious to most solvents and chemicals.
Size identification stamped in the base of the handle Color-coded handle for easy tip identification. It Meets ANSI specifications.
#9. Hex Socket or Hex screwdriveR:
Socket drivers can be very useful in mechanical industries. Socket drivers have a socket instead of a blade and tip, thus it acts as a socket wrench. The advantage of using a hex socket is when the moment we try to reach the recessed bolt.
Socket wrenches have a handle that runs parallel to the surface in which the bolt is embedded, requiring additional space to turn.
The straight shank and handle of a hex socket mean that you can turn such bolts with very little clearance. It is applicable for low torque applications but used with a normal ratchet plus socket combo for maximum applications.
The hex socket screw drive has a hexagonal recess and is driven by an Allen key, hex key, or hex screwdriver. A hex screwdriver features a hexagonal tip for driving certain nuts, bolts, and screws.
Hex screwdrivers are available in an extensive range of both standard and metric sizes. These screwdrivers can make the process of loosening and tightening hex nuts, bolts, and screws much easier.
Hex nuts, bolts, and screws can be made out of many metals, such as aluminum, brass, copper, and any grade of steel.
#10. JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard):
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard)is one of the most recognized types and probably the most commonly used driver in your toolbox for fastening cross-point screws. It has no “cam-outs” and damaged screws on Japanese brand products.
Its main advantage over the Phillips screwdrivers was that the self-centering design allowed operators to engage the tip of the driver into the screw head very quickly and easily.
The Japanese industrial Standard has self-centering and quick tool and screw engagement. It allowed torque and over-tightening to be controlled by the operator and not at the head of the screw.
#11. Battery-Operated Screwdriver:
Hitachi is renowned all over the world for the quality of its electronic and electro-mechanical products. Therefore, it did not come across as a surprise when their DB3DL2 cordless screwdriver kit surpassed my expectations.
Powered by a 1.5Ah battery, the tool easily completed all jobs I threw at it. The manufacturers have included two battery packs, ensuring that the user could keep on doing his job with one battery while charging the other.
The dual position handle was one of the primary factors that led me to purchase this device.
Let us dive in and see how this beauty performs. This tool is ideal for hobbyists, DIY enthusiasts, computer repair specialists, electricians, appliance repair personnel, as well as professionals.
Its lightweight along with its powerful LED light ensures that one can use it for tasks that are beyond the reach of other similar devices. For example, you can use it to remove and fix screws in computers without disassembling it.
It is the perfect tool when you need to lie beneath an object and there is hardly enough space between the floor and the working area.
While this tool is not ideal for major driving or drilling, it is perfect for general light screw driving tasks. The torque is great even at the lowest setting and works fine up to the last few seconds of battery life, a feature that other similar devices cannot boast of.
#12. Magnetic Screwdriver:
Magnetic-tipped screwdrivers have a large application that is handy and make the screwing application very easier as magnetic bits attract and hold small screws and come comes with 2 double-ended bits Sizes 5/32 in., 1/8 in., 0PT, 1PT.
It is applicable in small electronics industries when trying to place screws in hard-to-reach locations. Its use is easy because they stick to your screwdriver. You can magnetize your existing screwdriver using a rare earth magnet instead of buying new sets of magnetic-tipped screwdrivers.
#13. Ratcheting Screwdriver:
Ratcheting screwdrivers reduce the lift as well as saves time. It repositions the screwdriver tip after every turn. Ratcheting screwdrivers have an internal ball-bearing mechanism that allows the user to make multiple turns of the screw with an easy back-and-forth wrist action.
By switching a button on the screwdriver the ratcheting action can be changed from one direction to the others so that it is applicable to insert screws like clockwise directional motion and remove screws by the counter-clockwise direction of motion.
Yankee screwdriver operates on a spring-loaded ratcheting principle that has a specific ratcheting screwdriver mechanism.
The tip of a Yankee screwdriver in the screw head pushes firmly toward the screw Instead of using wrist action to turn the screwdriver. The pressure causes the screwdriver shank to turn and the tension spring inside pushes the handle back to make it to the starting position.
#14. Right Angle Screwdriver:
They are designed to turn at right angles.
The 8 piece right-angle screwdriver is designed to get into areas with only 1 in. of clearance. The convenient ratcheting mechanism provides ample torque for tightening and loosening hardware. The screwdrivers come with 7 hex bits.
Designed to get into hard-to-reach areas – requires only 1 in. of clearance! Includes 7 hex bits: PH1, PH2, PH3, 3/16 in., 1/4 in., T15, and T20 Convenient ratcheting mechanism.
It has a forged steel handle and precision tips that can be inserted anywhere even in narrow locations. Tips are precision formed to fit the fastener and the Shaft is forged from high-strength alloy steel.
It meets ANSI specifications and has 90-degree offset bits that enable the user to get around obstructions Including 4 different bit sizes.
Screwdriver Types Video:
Screwdriver is used at several places like:
Manufacture of furniture, electronics, carpentry, and jewelry.
Square Recess typically used in the manufacture of furniture due to the efficiency of the drive.
Torx typically used in the electronics and automotive industries.
Hex typically used in the manufacture of furniture.
Some electronics manufacturers use this drive to prevent users from tampering with their products.
Spanner typically used with electronics, restroom doors, and elevators.
In this article, we will study the Definition, Types, Working Principles, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications of a Cam and Follower in detail.
Note: You can download PDF of this article at the end.
Let’s start with the definition of Cam,
What is Cam?
Table of Contents
When the two links are connected either along a line or at a point, it is called a higher pair. Two such higher pair mechanisms will be included in a cam-follower system. A higher pair mechanism is known as cam and follower.
For the smooth functioning of a cam-follower mechanism, it is imperative that the follower should move smoothly without requiring too much input power, which means the follower should not jam, during its movement.
In an IC engine the valves have to be kept open; first, then close it and keep it closed, all these timing operations can be easily set by having cam-follower mechanisms.
In the case of linkages, we study planar linkages or two- dimensional linkages, and more.
Now moving to different types of Cam,
Types of CAM:
The following five types of CAM:
Disc or Plate Cam
Disc or Plate Cam:
A disc or plate cam is a type of cam in which the follower moves radially from the center of rotation of the cam. These cams are very popular due to their simple design and compactness that can be fitted into remote places. The application of Disc or Plate Cam is in I.C engines and machine tools.
A Cylindrical cam is the cam in which the cylinder rotates about its axis has a circumferential contour cut on the cylinder surface. They are also of two types in the first type a groove is cut on the surface of the cam and the roller and has a positive oscillating motion.
Another one is having a cylinder as the working surface. In this type of cam spring-loaded follower translates along the parallel axis to the rotating cylinder.
Translating cam is the type of cam in which cam can move in a horizontal plane. The follower attached too has the motion constrained with the help of the spring. Sometimes groove cams are used in which the follower motion is achieved without the use of the spring.
If the input link also called cam rotates as angular motion, then the cam has rotational or angular motion and then we call it a radial cam.
This profiled body is called the cam. This has a revolute pair with the fixed link that is the foundation or fixed link. Cam is the revoluting link. There is a revolute pair between the fixed link and the cam and the output link is the follower.
If this cam rotates depending on the profile or shape of the cam, the follower will have translatory motion along with this prismatic pair between the fixed link and the follower.
So uniform rotary motion of this cam will have oscillation of the follower along with the guide.
If the cam has a linear motion, then we call it a wedge cam. Wedge cam has a four-link mechanism, first is the fixed link, the cam which looks like a wedge is the other link.
It depends on the profile of this wedge, as this cam oscillates in the horizontal direction, the follower will oscillate along the vertical direction along with this prismatic pair or this guide.
Now we are moving to follower,
What is a Follower?
A follower is a translating or oscillating mechanical member that follows the motion of the cam. It can touch the surface profile of the cam or can be spring-loaded. It can have a uniform velocity or can have uniform acceleration motion. Complicated output motion can be achieved with the help of the follower motion.
Types of Follower:
The six different types of followers are:
Oscillating or Rotating follower
Translating or Reciprocating follower
Knife Edge Follower
Flat Faced or Mushroom Follower
Spherical faced Follower
If the follower has linear motion, then we call it a translating follower. Now for the translating follower, that is the axis of that prismatic pair passes through the cam center, then we call it radially translating.
We call it a radial translating follower when the follower axis passes through the center of the camshaft. If it has a little offset, that means the axis of the translation of the follower does not pass through the cam center, then we call it an offset translating follower.
The cam rotates as before but this is the follower due to the shape of the cam, the follower undergoes an oscillatory motion and the follower is hinged at this point. So, this is called an oscillating follower.
If the follower has just a knife-edge with the cam then we call it a knife-edge follower. the knife-edge is only theoretical because knife-edge follower is never used because of the very high wear rate. Contact stress will be extremely high.
The follower is hinged to a roller and this roller is in contact with the cam, this is called roller follower. This is the cam that rotates and the follower which is hinged here oscillates. it is used when a large force has to be transmitted like in stationary IC engines.
If there is not enough space to use a large roller because this pin has to be sufficiently big to transmit the force between the cam and the follower and the roller has to be bigger than the pin at least twice as big as the pin, then the roller needs a lot of space.
Flat face follower:
The follower surface which is in contact with the cam is in the form of a flat surface is called a flat face follower. The follower surface, instead of flat, can be also a curved surface.
This is the cam that rotates and the follower which is hinged here oscillates, so this is called curved-face. If space is restricted then we can use a flat face follower, if the force involved is not too large as we used in the case of automobiles.
Cam and Follower Nomenclature or Terminology:
The following terminology of Cam and Follower is:
Tracepoint is a point on the follower, which describes the follower movement. For roller follower, it is the center of the roller. So the tracepoint is the roller center, which means the movement of the follower will be described in terms of the motion of this roller center.
If it is a flat face follower, then the tracepoint we use is the point on the follower’s face that is in contact with the cam surface when the follower is at one of the extreme positions, we normally use that extreme position when the follower is closest to the cam center.
The base circle is the smallest circle that can be drawn with the cam center as the center and touching the cam profile, this circle we call a base circle. So the radius of the base circle we call, Rb, is called the base circle radius.
To define the pitch curve, think of kinematic inversion. In the kinematic inversion, this is a four-link mechanism, fixed link, cam, roller, and follower.
In this four-link mechanism, this link is fixed, but in the kinematic chain, if we make a kinematic inversion holding cam fixed. the locus of the center of the roller will generate a curve that is parallel to the cam profile.
This is the locus of the tracepoint or roller center, after kinematic inversion with cam fixed.
The smallest circle can be drawn with the cam center as the center and tangential to the pitch curve. This circle has a center at the cam-shaft axis and is tangential to the pitch curve. This circle is called the prime circle. If the base circle radius is Rb and Rr is the roller radius, then the prime circle radius is Rp = Rb + Rr.
The common normal between the roller and the cam is passing through the roller center and normal to the cam profile.
Cam and Follower Working Principle:
A normal force acts in the X direction and a normal force acts in the Y direction and these two normal forces balance the cocking moment, the moment due to this force Fn.
The friction force which will try to oppose this vertical motion will be μ times the normal force. The normal force is N, then this will be μN. During upward motion, the follower has to overcome not only these two friction forces but also has to overcome the spring force.
Large Fn is necessary to overcome the friction force and the vertical component of the Fn will overcome these two friction forces and the spring force, whereas during the downward movement the spring force is helping the follower to come down, so the contact force will be less.
The vertical component will be Fn cos φ, if the φ is very large then this vertical component will be reduced. As a result, during the upward movement, the pressure angle should be low and during the return movement, φ can be large, so φmax is more critical during the upward movement.
While designing a cam-follower system, translating follower does not jam in its prismatic guide. The chances of the restriction to the movement of the oscillating follower are much less.
Cam and Follower Advantages:
The following advantages of Cam and Follower are:
Cam and follower bearing are that they always distribute evenly, regardless of the configuration of the unit.
A wide range of linear motions is available from cams and followers.
Cam follower can absorb more shock than normal and can reduce distortion.
They are highly versatile.
Cam and Follower Disadvantages:
The following disadvantages of Cam and Follower are:
A Backlash between the cam follower and the cam.
This must be stopped to prevent much damage when there is a crashing of the machine.
More expensive to manufacture and machine require greater precision.
This article includes Definition, Types, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Application of Radiator.
Note: At the end of the article you can easily download whole article in PDF format.
Let us start with the definition first,
Table of Contents
Radiators are used to convert thermal energy from one mode to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. Radiators function in automobiles, buildings as well as in electronics. It acts as a source of heat to the surrounding but might be the purpose of heating the environment, it acts as a coolant source for automotive engine cooling.
Radiators transfer most of their heat via convection rather than thermal radiation. If there are large temperature differences, it can cause distortion of the engine components.
The radiator will do the cooling purposes because the temperature of the burning gases in the engine cylinder reaches up to 1500 to 2000°C.
If the heat is not dissipated there can be a failure of the cylinder material. Radiators can reduce the chances of piston seizure and keep the temperature minimum.
Radiator Main Parts or Construction:
Radiator Main Parts or Construction are follows:
We will study one by one in detail,
Due to absorbing heat from the engine coolant get hot, the liquid expands and creates pressure in the radiator additionally. The pressure causes the coolant to get higher than the pressure cap, in order to prevent leakage excess coolant needs to be captured somewhere. The excess fluid flows into the pipe and goes into the overflow tank.
When the driver parks turn off the engines the vehicle and the heat dissipates which causes the coolant. The coolant will then contract instead of expanding; resulting in the volume of the coolant.
The vacuum effect will take place where the pressure decrease allows the excess coolant in the overflow tank to flow back so it can return to the radiator. Tanks could also be made of brass, plastic, a polyamide).
Just after it has passed through the heat radiating tubes and fins in the body of the radiator the bottom tank receives the cooling water.
The significant temperature takes place. From the block, the thermostat releases water at 180 degrees Faranhite. That water can lose as 100 def. F. depending on the ambient air temperature and the efficiency of the radiator by the time it reaches the bottom tank.
The water pump holds this cooled water. It will back into the block where it is again heated up.
On its way to the opposite tank, as the coolant passes through the radiator tubes, it transfers heat to the tubes that transfer the heat to the fins that are attached between the rows. The fins head the heat flow to the ambient air.
Radiator tubes are made up of brass. The use of aluminum increased, eventually taking over the vast majority of vehicular radiator applications.
Since the coolant expands the high coolant temperature leads to an increase in pressure in the cooling system. Coolant is press in the tank that will increase the pressure in the tank.
A pressure relief valve in the filler cap opens. It allows air to escape. Partial vacuum forms in the cooling system when the coolant temperature returns to normal. This causes a vacuum in the tank because the Coolant is extracted from the tank.
Fins are surfaces that are used to increase the rate of heat transfer to or from the environment and they extend from the surface by increasing convection.
Fins increase the surface area and can be an economical solution to heat transfer problems.
Types of radiators:
There are mainly two types of Radiator:
Cellular Type Core.
It is the series combination of upper and lower tanks through which water passes. Fins are attached to improve heat transfer around the tubes. Outside of the tubes, the air is passed between the fins that absorbing heat from the water.
The water passes through all the tubes the cooling effect of the entire tube is lost if one of the tubes becomes clogged. On a cellular radiator, the clogging of any passage results in a loss but of a small part of the total cooling surface.
The tubular radiator type operates with convection and radiation heating. The tabular type radiators are designed for heating of church interior, garages, public toilets, locker rooms.
The tubular radiator type is manufactured from steel that is powder painted and mounted with stainless tubular heating element attached in insulation plates.
This type of radiator should only operate with full power because it becomes rather hot on the surface. It Should be equipped with protection grate. The radiator is equipped with a heating element. The electrical board has got the reconnection.
The radiators are equipped with brackets and are designed for placing under the bench and along the wall.
Cellular Type Core:
Air passes through the tubes and the water flows in the spaces between them in cellular type core. The core contains a large number of air cells that are surrounded by the radiator. It is known as a honeycomb radiator because of its appearance as the cells in front are hexagonal in form.
On a cellular radiator, passage clogging results in a loss but small areas will be affected by it. It consists of many small tubes equipped with a honeycomb-like structure of fins to dissipate heat rapidly and cools hot liquid from the engine.
Radiator Working Principle:
The radiator is a pretty simple device. Aluminum radiators are used nowadays. It has a tank on both sides, and there is a transmission cooler inside the tank. This radiator has aluminum mesh. Aluminum ports have two port inlets as well as an outlet port.
There are tubes mounted in a parallel arrangement inside the radiator. And the aluminum fins are attached to all of the tubes.
The Radiator working is very simple. In the radiator, the coolant flows from the inlet to the outlet through many tubes mounted in a parallel arrangement.
The hot water enters the radiator through the inlet port. And a fan is attached behind the radiator to cool down the hot water in the tubes.
The fan blows the air and cools down the water. So the water is going to come out cooler than it entered before and then go back to the engine.
Now it does that air is going to be feeding through this radiator. The aluminum fins are attached to the tubes this called tabulator.
Now the tubes are filled with hot coolant coming from the engine. So they’re going to give off heat to this aluminum coat by passing air through the fan, it cools the aluminum coat.
If the smooth flow through the tubes, only the fluid would be cooled directly that actually touching the tubes. Now it is going to send out to the cooler and then go back to the engine.
Its core is usually made up of flattened aluminum tubes with aluminum strips that zigzag between the tubes. These fins transfer the heat in the tubes to the air stream, to be carried away from the vehicle.
One is mounted towards the top of the radiator to let the coolant in while the other is mounted at the bottom of the radiator on the other tank to let the coolant back out.
On top of it there is an additional opening that is capped off by the radiator cap.
In a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine motorcycles and cars, the radiator is connected to channels running through the engine and, through which a liquid (coolant) is pumped in the cylinder head.
More commonly a mixture of water and antifreeze is used as the liquid. Antifreeze is ethylene glycol or propylene glycol.
The following advantages of Radiator are:
The radiator is of good heat dissipation. It obviously saves material and energy.
Good performance of oxidation corrosion resistance
They are highly responsive.
They are environmentally friendly to produce, so they are less polluting.
They are easy to mold, and so you can find some very cool and unusual designs.
Ceramic, cast iron, and other materials used to construct them will hold heat.
The following disadvantages of Radiator are:
Heat loss takes place if not used and maintained properly.
It needs an adequate amount of airflow in the room in order for a radiator to properly work.
The heats from the unit will simply sit around the unit, which can reduce the comfort levels within your home and create drafts and cold spots.
Radiators can grow extremely hot to the touch while working. Please avoid especially small children or pets from the working radiator.
In this Planer Machine article, we will study Definition, Parts, Working, Types, Operation, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Application.
Note: At the end of the article you can download PDF of Planer Machine.
So now lets start with the Introduction first,
Planer Machine Introduction:
Table of Contents
The principle of the planner machine is the concept of relative tool-work motions. Reciprocation of the tool or job and the slow, intermittent transverse feed motions are imparted to the job or tool by the fast straight path cutting motion.
Al the operations done in planning machines can be done in the shaping machine. Stroke length, larger size, and higher rigidity enable the planning machines to do more heavy-duty work on large jobs and their long surfaces.
It produces planes and flat surfaces with a single-point cutting tool. A planer machine is large and massive as compared to a shaper machine. The planer can do machining heavy workpiece, which cannot be done on a shaper surface.
Planer Machine Definition:
Planer Machine is a machine in which unwanted material is cut from the workpiece to produce a flat surface on the workpiece. Unlike Shaper Machine, in this machine, more than one tool can be set and perform an operation.
Now let’s see the construction or Parts of Planer Machine,
Planer Machine Parts:
The following Construction or Main Parts of Planer Machine are:
Column or Housing
The bed of a planer having cross ribs similar to box-like casting. It is heavy in weight and very large in size also it supports the column and moving parts of the machine.
The bed is made generally longer than the length of the table, almost twice the length. So that the full length of the table may across it. To support the table guideways may be provided on a very large machine.
The guideways should be horizontal and parallel to each other. The guideways are lubricated properly and to ensure a continuous and adequate supply of lubricants in modern machines, oil under pressure is pumped into the different parts of the guideways.
Column or Housing:
The housings also called columns like vertical structures placed on each side of the bed and are attached to the sides of the bed. They are heavily mechanized to continue severe forces due to cutting.
Cross rail may be made to slide up and down for accommodating different heights of work to the front face of each housing is accurately machined to provide precision ways.
Two side-tool head also slide upon it. Planer housing encloses the Crossrail elevating screw, vertical and crossfeed screws for tool heads, counterbalancing weight for the Crossrail.
The planer screws can be operated by hand or power.
The table of the planer supports the workpiece and reciprocates along with the ways of the bed. The planer table is a heavy rectangular casting that has T-slots provided on the entire length of the table so that the work and work holding devices attached to it.
In the end, a hollow space is left which acts as a carrier for collecting chips. Works can also rest upon the troughs of the planer.
The table is made up of one single casting but it is divided by the table of planer there are two separate tables mounted upon the bed ways.
Hydraulic bumpers are attached to the end of the bed to stop the table from overrunning that will give the cushioning effect. If the table overruns, a large cutting tool bolted along the underside of the table which will take a deep cut on a replaceable block absorbing the kinetic energy of the moving table.
The Crossrail is a casting that connects the two housings. Crossrail provides rigidity to the machine. It occupies the face of the housing and can be clamped at the position by manual, hydraulic devices.
The Crossrail when clamped should remain absolutely parallel to the top surface of the table, i.e. It must be horizontal irrespective of its position.
Two tool heads are mounted which are called railhead. It has screws for vertical and crossfeed of the tool heads and a screw for elevating the rail. The planer screws can be operated by hand or power.
Tool head is a component assembled to saddle, which has the tool post in it. The tool post is attached to the head so that on to and from of the table the cutting tool force is raised.
The cutting edge of the tool will be saved as of being damage and permits the automatic supply to function with no intrusion.
It has Saddle, Swivel base, Vertical Slide, Apron, Clapper box, Clapper block, Toolpost, Down feed screw, Apron, clamping bolt, Apron swiveling pin, Mechanism for cross and down-feed of the tool.
Driving and Feed Mechanism:
The feeding mechanism of the tool head is by the hand of power in a crosswise or in a vertical direction. The drive mechanism is located under the table and The motor drive is at one side of the planer.
The size of the planer is specified by the maximum length of the stroke and it is also specified by the largest rectangular size that can be machined.
Now we study working of Planer Machine,
Planer Machine Working Principle:
The worktable can be move and the tool head of the machine is in a stationary position. The workpiece is fixed on the work table and
The single point cutting tool is attached to the tool head and now we switch on the machine that means power supply to the machine and the worktable moves forward.
Hence it cuts the material and it is called cutting stroke. The worktable moves downward there is no cutting of material so this is called the return stroke. The process will be continued unless you change the power supply or others.
Planer Machine Working Video:
Planer Machine Mechanism:
Kinematics and its mechanism involve transformation and transmission of rotation of the motor into reciprocating motion of the work table and the transverse motions of the tools.
The reciprocation motion of the table that gives cutting motion to the job, is obtained by a rack-pinion mechanism. The rack is fitted with the table and the pinion is fitted on the output shaft of the speed gearbox.
The blocks hold the cutting tools that move horizontally along the rail by the screw-nut system and the rail is again moved up and down by screw-nut pair different from it.
The belts are used as drivers to reciprocate the table alternatively. The greater arc of contact on the larger pulley is used to drive the table.
Greater power and less speed is required during the cutting stroke and is done by connecting the cross belt with a larger diameter pulley which is fed on the shaft.
The power from the shaft transmits through pinion P and spur gear.
Now moving to types,
Planer Machine Types:
Planer Machine have five different Types:
Double Housing Planer Machine
Pit Planer Machine
Open Side Machine
Edge Planer Machine and
Divided Table Planer Machine
Double Housing Planer Machine:
Most of the workshops use a double housing planer machine. Double housing planers have a long heavy base with machined guideways accurate on which a table reciprocates. The bed length is greater than twice the length of the table.
Two vertical housings are mounted one housing: One on each side and these are connected at the top by a cross member. It has a horizontal cross rail that carries two tool heads slides over the vertical faces of the machine housing.
Tool heads are moved by hand or power in the cross or vertical direction for the feeding operation. Double housing planer is a high speed, heavy-duty as well as rigid machines.
It has a high degree of surface finish. Work is mounted on a table which reciprocates while the tool is held on the machine frame. It can make deep cuts and heavy feeds can be applied to finish the work in a short time. The tool is stationery and work is moving. Heavier, stronger, and larger tools are used.
Throughout the stroke cutting and return, speeds are uniform. Double housing Planer consumes a power of 150 horsepower and the double housing holds the large floor area.
Pit Planer Machine:
Pit planer has a massive construction in which the table is kept in a pit and kept stationary. The crosses rail reciprocates on a horizontal rail mounted on both sides of the table.
The table of the planer is leveled with the floor, so heavy work can be loaded. It has two tool heads and these can be moved horizontally and vertically to have the feed. By means of a motor, a driving screw is used for driving the column.
Open Side Planer Machine:
One housing on one side of the base is attached or clamped on which a cross rail on a table moves.
The open side planer machine has three tool heads mounted on the machine. Single housing will bear the entire load, Therefore it should be rigid and robust to face the forces.
It can slide along the guideways of the housing in the vertical direction which carries the tool heads.
Edge Planer Machine:
Edge planer is also called plate planer and is used for bevelling and squaring the edges of steel plates used for pressure vessels in different applications and in the ship buildings industry.
The table holds the work that remains in a stationary position. The workpiece can be attached by air-operated clamps. The tool-head that mounts on the carriage moves along two horizontal guideways.
Divided Table Planer Machine
Divided table Planer Machine has two tables on the bed that can reciprocate separately or jointly. This will saves the idle time when you set the work.
Divided type planer is mostly suitable for mass production work that can Machine is to be done identically, the work on one of the tables is loaded, the other part can reciprocate the cutting tool for the finishing process.
Finishing the work can be done after the table is stopped and the finished job is ejected by shifting the table to the end. Heavy and large jobs are clamped together therefore given the reciprocating movement by the tool.
Now we will study Advantages, Disadvantages and Application.
Planer Machine Advantages:
The following advantages of Planer Machine as follows:
It has Greater accuracy,
Good surface finish,
More than one tool can perform on the workpiece at a time and
Low maintenance is required.
Planer Machine Disadvantages:
The following disadvantages of Planer Machine as follows:
The cost of the machine is on the higher side.
The power consumption is quite more.
The skilled worker required.
Only tool single point is used.
Planer Machine Application:
The following application of Planer Machine as follows:
The Planer machine is used for Flat surfaces on the workpiece.
Cutting angular surfaces is one of the major applications.
Cochran Boiler is a simple fire tube boiler with multiple fire tubes. It is a modification of a simple vertical boiler.
In the Cochran boiler, the heating surface is replaced with multiple fire tubes that’s why it is the modification of Simple Vertical Boiler. Cochran boiler has greater efficiency comparatively Simple vertical boiler.
Here in this article, we are going to study Definition, Parts or Construction, Working Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Application in very detail.
Note: At the end of every article, you can download PDF.
let’s start with the definition first,
Cochran Boiler Definition:
Table of Contents
Cochran boiler is a fire tube boiler (Fire inside the boiler and water surrounding them) in which coal or gases as a working fluid is used, for generating the steam,and that steam isfurther used for several purposes.
Now comes to the construction,
Cochran Boiler Parts or Construction:
Cochran Boiler consists of the following Parts or Construction:
Water level Indicator
Steam stop valve
anti Primimg Pipe
A blow of valve and more
Let’s study one by one,
The grate is basically known as the door for placing the fuel. It is made of iron bars and the iron bars are divided into a segment and each segment has two to three bars.
There is adequate space available here for airflow. This airflow helps in the burning of fuel inside the combustion chamber.
#2. Fire door:
The fire is provided through the fire door to start burning fuel inside the boiler.
#3. Ash Pit:
Here, ashes are accumulated under the fire. The ashpit is located below the grate.
#4. Flue Gases:
When the burning of fuel starts in the combustion chamber, it produces a gas that has a certain amount of temperature and this temperature is increasing because of more fuel burning in the combustion chamber already.
The flue gases reach that temperature, where the water surrounds them, starts getting heat and further continuously supply of heat the water gets superheated. The gas is called flue gases.
#5. Flue Pipes:
The main function of the flue pipe is to transmit the hot flue gases from the grate to the combustion chamber. It is connected from the grate to the combustion chamber.
#6. Combustion Chamber:
The combustion chamber is lined with fire bricks on the side of the shell to prevent overheating. The fuel coal which is in the solid form is introduced to burn and produce heat. The combustion chamber has a large area and here the burning of fuel takes place.
The heat produced here has a certain amount of temperature and sends to the fire tube therefore with this amount of temperature the water surrounds gets heated.
#7. Smoke Box:
The smokebox is basically used for storing and releasing the smoke to the chimney during the working process of the Cochran boiler.
It is made of riveted or welded steel plate and the floor is lined with concrete for the protection of the steel from rainwater, hot char, or acid attacks.
The chimney location is at the top of the boiler. It is connected to the smokebox. When the gas gets completely burns and remains only smoke, then this smoke is sent to the smokebox and further, it is sent to the chimney. And from the chimney, the smoke is released into the atmosphere.
#9. Water level Indicator:
It is the most important component of the Cochran boiler. The water level indicator is a measuring instrument and It measures the level of water and gives the detail of the water level in the boiler.
There are few marks available on the instrument for the indication of water level. If it does not function on time then there may be seen damage in the boiler.
#10. Man Hole:
It is also a very important part of the boiler. When things in the boiler get damaged and not working, then a boiler specialist enters through the Man Hole and fixes the damaged parts.
We can say it is for fixing the boiler or its part when it is not working properly.
#11. Pressure gauge:
The pressure gauge is installed at the front of the boiler as you can see in the diagram. We use this instrument in several places. The work of this instrument is to measure the pressure of the steam of the boiler.
In the boiler when pressure is low or the pressure is high, the pressure gauge indicates the pressure of the system, and therefore according to need we control the system.
#12. Safety Valve:
It is to prevent an increase in steam pressure. When the pressure increases above design pressure, the valve opens and discharges the steam to the atmosphere and, When this pressure falls just below the design pressure, the valve closes automatically. Usually, the valve is spring-controlled.
#13. Steam stop valve:
The steam stop valve regulates the supply of steam outside. First, from the boiler, the steam generated comes to an anti priming pipe here some parts of water particles will be removed and it completely remains dry steam then further this steam is used for needed place.
#14. Anti Primimg Pipe:
Anti priming pipe is provided in the boiler for extracting steam from the boiler is only dry saturated steam.
#15. A blow of valve:
Water contains some impurities like mud, sand, and salt. Due to the heating of water, these impurities are deposited to the ground creating a problem and it has to be removed.
So the Blow-off-valve is used for removing these things.
After studying construction now let’s have an overview of how it works,
Cochran Boiler Working Principle:
Working of the Cochran boiler is from the grate the fuel gases or coal are used and that is inserted.
From the firing door, the fire is provided to start the burning of fuel.
The burning of fuel generates hot flue gases and it comes to the combustion chamber. Here almost the temperature is maximum.
We know this is a fire tube boiler. In the tube, hot flue gases pass and water is surrounded.
So the hot flue gases are passing through tubes. The hotness of the fire tube starts heating the surrounded water. The water starts evaporating and at some point it becomes steam.
Now the steam comes at the top of the boiler.
With the use of an Anti priming pipe, the complete steam is extracted from the boiler and here the steam stop valve is placed which works is to transfer the steam to other laces such as the turbine and so on.
When the fuel is burned completely and it becomes ash it comes down to the ash pit and the smoke is released to the chimney and to the atmosphere.
Cochran Boiler Working Video:
It has some advantages and disadvantages too:
Cochran Boiler Advantages:
The following advantages of Cochran Boiler are:
Coal or Oil type of fuel can be used.
It is a quick and easy installation.
Installation and Initial cost of Cochran boiler is a low comparatively another boiler.
It is a portable(Easily move) type boiler.
The minimum floor required.
It has a high volume to area ratio.
Cochran Boiler Disadvantages:
The following disadvantages of Cochran Boiler are:
Steam generation is low due to vertical design and it is major disadvantages.
The pressure range is also limited.
Maintenance is difficult.
Cochran Boiler Application:
The main application of Cochran Boiler is:
Cochran Boiler used in small power plants and some industries too.
Paper manufacturing plants.
Chemical processing divisions.
Cochran Boiler Specification:
The following Specification of Cochran Boiler are:
Efficiency is 75 percent.
Heating Surface area 120 sq meter.
Working pressure 7 bar and a maximum up to 15 bar.
So here we finally studied all the Cochran Boiler in detail. I hope you have understood this topic. If yes then please share it with your friends and family. Do let me know what further topic I can help you with. Till then Thank you so much for visiting. Bye.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler is a simple water tube boiler in which water is flowing in the tube and hot gases surround them.
Here we are going to study Definition, Construction or Parts, Working Principle, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler in very detail.
At the end of every article, you can download PDF.
Let’s start with the definition first,
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Definition:
Table of Contents
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler is a horizontal type drum axis, stationary, high pressure, natural circulation, solid fuel-fired water tube boiler in which coal is burned to heat the water for changing the phase into steam and later that steam is used for power generation.
Now comes to the construction,
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Parts or Construction:
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler consist of the following Parts or Construction:
Upper take header
Water level Indicator
anti Primimg Pipe
Main Stop Valve
A blow of valve
Chimney and more
Let us study one by one,
It is a horizontal axis and it contains water and steam as you can see in the diagram. The water drum is connected by a tube with an uptake header or riser at the other end.
The inspection door is provided for inspecting and cleaning the boiler. When the boiler parts get damaged and it is not functioning properly then through the inspection door the boiler specialists enter into the boiler and fix the damage parts.
The Fire door is basically for providing the fire to start burning of fuel. Basically here we provide the solid fuel for burning.
It is basically known as the door for placing the fuel coal.
After the burning of fuel coal, the completely burned fuel which becomes ash now will come to the ash pit. The ash pit is located below the grate.
The baffle plate is present in the water tube boiler. The main function of the baffle plate is to divert the flue gases direction so that from one side to another side hot flue gases can easily go.
Upper and Down take header:
Upper take header connected to the drum from a very short pipe and down take header is connected to a long pipe.
The water comes from the drum through a long pipe to the down take header and it flows through the entire tube.
The steam formed will go up by a shorter tube (Upper take header).
Water level Indicator:
The Water level indicator is a measuring instrument. It measures the level of water and gives detail of the level of water.
We use this instrument in several places. The works are to measure the pressure of the steam.
The safety valve is to prevent an increase in steam pressure.
Main stop valve:
The steam stop valve regulates the supply of steam outside to the boiler. First, from the boiler, the steam generated comes to an anti priming pipe here some parts of water particles will be removed and it completely remains dry steam then further this steam is used for needed place.
Manhole is a very important part of the boiler. When parts or accessories get damaged or not working, then a boiler specialist engineer enters through the Man Hole and fixes the damaged parts.
Anti Primimg Pipe:
Anti priming pipe is provided in the boiler for extracting steam from the boiler is only dry saturated steam.
The impurities or contamination from the water will store here.
A blow of valve:
It is attached to the mud collector. Water contains some impurities like mud, sand, and salt. Due to the heating of water, these impurities deposited in the ground that creates a problem and it has to be removed.
So the Blow-off-valve is used for removing impurities from the mud collector.
A Damper is here for removing the smokes from the boiler and it sends to the chimney.
The smoke released by the damper now comes to the chimney. From here smokes are released to the atmosphere. After studying construction now let’s have an overview of how it works,
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Working Principle:
The working is, first the fuel (coal) is placed at the grate, and water is supplied to the drum. Now from the fire door ‘fire’ is supplied, to start burning of coal. The start burning of coal produces hot gases.
Water from the long pipe as you can see in the diagram (down take a header) is coming and impurities parts get into the mud collector and water is moving to the tubes.
The temperature of the flue gases increasing so water starts gets heating.
Here the baffle plate is placed to divert the flue gases direction to another side for an equal amount of flue gases for heating.
The water starts evaporating in the tube as increases the temperatures.
The steam formed will go up by short pipes to the drum and to the superheater to form completely dry steam and during these process circulation of water is on. The smoke released by the damper to the chimney and to the atmosphere.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Working Video:
It has some advantages and disadvantages too:
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Advantages:
The following advantages of the Babcock and Wilcox Boiler are:
The overall efficiency of the Babcock and Wilcox boiler is high.
This boiler occupies less space.
The tubes used in the boiler can be exchanged easily when it gets damaged.
A steam generation or production is high nearly around plus 20 tonnes per hour.
The following disadvantages of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler are:
This boiler is not suitable for salty, Impure, and Sedemetry water. If these go to the boiler the overheating problem can occur that’s why water treatment is necessary before inserting water for the working process.
The maintenance and Installation cost is more.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Application:
This boiler is used for power plants for the generation of electricity and some other industries too.
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Sailent Features:
The following Silent features of this Boiler are:
Babcock and Wilcox Boiler, Overall efficiency is high compare to other fire tube boiler.
The tubes which get defective can be replaced easily.
The draught loss is minimum.
The water tubes are kept inclined to 15 degrees for the circulation of water.
The operating pressure and steam generation are high compare to another boiler.
Here we studied Babcock and Wilcox Boiler in detail. Let me know what further I can help you with. Till then if this article helps you please share it with your friends and family. Thank you for reading.
Lathe Machine is one of the oldest machine tools in the production machine. This Machine is also known as the “mother of all machines”.
Today we will study the Definitions, Parts, Types, Operations, Specifications, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of the Lathe machine.
Note: At the end of article you can download whole document in PDF format easily.
Let’s start by Introduction first,
Lathe Machine Introduction:
Table of Contents
The lathe machine is probably the oldest machine tool known to mankind. Its first use date back to 1300 BC in Egypt. The first lathe was a simple Lathe which is now called a two-person lathe. In this one person would turn the wood workpiece using rope and the other person would shape the workpiece using a sharp tool.
This design was further improved by the Ancient Romans who added the turning bow and lather the paddle (as there in the sewing machine) was added.
Further during the industrial revolution Steam Engines and water wheels were attached to the Lathe to turn the workpiece to a higher speed which made the work faster and easier.
Then, In 1950 servo mechanism was used to control the lathe machine. From this crude begging and over a period of more than two centuries, the modern engine lathe has evolved.
Now we have the most advanced form of the Lathe which is the CNC Lathe. HENRY MAUDSLAY, a British Engineer is considered the inventor of a lathe.
Lathe Machine Definition:
A lathe machine is a machine tool that removes the undesired material from a rotating workpiece in the form of chips with the help of a tool that is traversed across the work and can be fed deep into the work.
It is one of the most versatile and widely used machine tools all over the world.
This is also known as the ‘Mother of all Machines’. Nowadays, Lathe Machine has become a general-purpose machine tool, employed in production and repair work, because it permits a large variety of operations to be performed on it.
Lathe Machine Parts:
The Lathe Machine consists of the following Main Parts:
I have also shown the different parts in the Lathe Machine diagram.
let’s start from Bed first,
The bed of the lathe machine is the base on which all the other parts of the lathe are mounted. The bed is made from cast iron or nickel cast iron alloy and is supported on broad box-section columns.
Its upper surface is either scraped or grounded and the guiding and sliding surfaces are provided.
The bed consists of heavy metal slides running lengthwise, with ways or v’s forced upon them. It is rigidly supported by cross griths.
The three major units mounted on a bed are:
The scrapped or the
ground guiding along with the sliding surfaces on the lathe bed ensure the
accuracy of the alignment of these three units.
The headstock is present on the left end of the bed. The main function of the headstock is to transmit power to the different parts of the lathe.
It supports the main spindle in the bearing and aligns it properly. It also houses a necessary transmission mechanism with speed-changing levers to obtain different speeds.
Accessories mounted on the headstock spindle are:
Three jaw chuck.
Four jaw chuck.
Lathe center and lathe dog.
The tailstock is a movable casting located opposite the headstock on the way of the bed.
The basic function of the tailstock is:
To support the other end of the work when being machined.
To hold a tool for performing operations like drilling, reaming, tapping, etc.
It consists of the dead centers, the adjusting screws, and the handwheel. The body of the tailstock is adjustable on the base which is mounted on the guideways of the bed and can be moved.
The carriage is located between the headstock and tailstock. The basic function of the carriage is to support, guide, and feed the tool against the job during operation.
It consists of 5 main parts:
It is an H-shaped casting mounted on the top of the lathe ways. It provides support to cross-slide, compound rest, and tool post.
slide is provided with a female dovetail on one side and assembled on the top
of the saddle with its male dovetail.
The top surface of the cross slide is provided with T slots to enable the fixing of the rear tool post or coolant attachment. The carriage basically provides a mounted or automatic cross-movement for the cutting tool.
Compound rest is present on the top of the cross slide. It supports the tool post and cutting tool in its various positions. Compound rest is necessary for turning angles and boring short tapers and forms on forming tools.
The tool post is mounted on the compound rest. It is used to hold various cutting tool holders. The holders rest on a wedge which is shaped on the bottom to fit into a concave-shaped ring (segmental type),
Which permits the height of the cutting edge to be adjusted by tilting the tool. It is fixed on the top slide. It gets its movement by the movement of the saddle, cross slide, and top slide.
The three types of tool posts which are commonly used are:
Ring and rocker tool post: It consists of a circular tool post with a slot for accommodating the tool or tool holder.
Quick change tool post
Squarehead tool post.
The Apron is fastened to the saddle and hangs over the front of the bed. Apron consists of the gears and clutches for transmitting motion from the feed rod to the carriage, and the split nut which engages with the lead screw during cutting threads.
Two types of Apron are extensively used:
Incorporating drop worm mechanism.
Friction or dog clutches.
Chuck is basically used to hold the workpiece, particularly of short length and large diameter or of irregular shape which can’t be conveniently mounted between centers. It can be attached to the lathe by screwing on the spindle nose.
Four different types of chucks are most commonly used in Lathe:
Independent or four-jaw chuck
Three-jaw or universal chuck
Collect chuck and
Independent or four-jaw chuck:
It is used for irregular shapes, rough castings of square or octagonal in such jobs, where a hole is to be positioned off the center. It consists of four jaws and each jaw is independently actuated and adjusted by a key for holding the job.
Three jaw or universal chuck:
It consists of three jaws that move simultaneously by turning a key and the workpiece automatically remains in the center of the chuck opening. It is used for holding a round, hexagonal bar or other symmetric work.
It is mostly used in the places where production work is required such as in Capstan Lathe or automats. It is used for holding bars of small sizes (below 63mm).
They are of permanent magnet type or electrically operated. In Lathe, it does not have widespread use.
The feed rod is a power transmission mechanism used for precise linear movement of the carriage along the longitudinal axis of the lathe. In some lathe machines instead of feed rods lead screws are used.
The lead screw is used mostly in the case when the threading operation is to be performed on a lathe. As we know threading operation requires rotational movement of the job (workpiece) and the linear movement of the tool (tool post).
So rotation of the job is obtained by the chuck and the desired linear motion of the tool post (as the lead screw drives the saddle when it is engaged) is provided with the help of a lead screw.
Lathe Machine Working Principle:
A Lathe works on the principle of rotating the workpiece and a fixed cutting tool.
The workpiece is held between two rigid and strong supports called a center in a chuck or in a faceplate which revolves.
Lathe removes the undesired material from a rotating workpiece in the form of chips with the help of a tool that is transverse across the work and can be fed deep in the work.
The main function of the lathe is to
remove the metal from a job to give it the required shape and size.
The normal cutting operations are
performed with the cutting tool fed either parallel or at right angles to the
axis of the work.
The cutting tool can be fed at an angle relative to the axis of the work for machining tapers and angles.
Products made by Lathe Machine:
A variety of products can be made from the lathe machine and that are Nuts, bolts, pistons, ram, pump parts, electric motor parts, sleeves, Aircraft parts, gun barrels, candlesticks, train parts, cue sticks, wooden bowls, baseball bat, crankshaft and many more things.
Lathe Machine Types:
There are 10 different types of Lathe Machines and those are:
Engine Lathe or Center Lathe
Gap bed lathe
Hollow spindle Lathe
Vertical Turret Lathe and
CNC Lathe Machine.
Engine Lathe or Center Lathe Machine:
The engine lathe is the most important tool in the Lathe family and by far the most widely used type of Lathe machine.
Its name is derived from the fact that early machine tools were driven by separate Engines or central engines with overhead belts and shafts.
The operations which can be performed by the Engine Lathe machine are Turning, facing, grooving, knurling, threading, and many more operations that can be performed by it.
Engine lathe consists of headstock, Tailstock, bed, saddle, carriage, and other parts.
The headstock encloses the spindle and motor. It also consists of the gear and pulleys, which are used to change the gear speed and the feed rate.
The tailstock is provided to facilitate holding the work between centers and permit the use of tools like drills, taps, etc.
The cutting tool can be fed both in the cross and longitudinal direction with reference to the lathe axis with the help of the feed rod and the lead screw.
The Engine Lathe is available in sizes to handle 1m diameter jobs and 1 to 4m long.
Turret Lathe Machine:
It is a production machine that is used for the production of products on a large scale. It basically handles heavy-duty workpieces. The distinguishing feature of this type of lathe is that the Tailstock is replaced by a hexagonal Turret.
In this, several tools are set up on a revolving turret to facilitate performing a large number of operations on a job with minimum wastage of time.
The turret usually accommodates 6 tools for different operations like drilling, countersinking, reaming, tapping, etc, which can be brought into successively working positions by indexing the turret. The turret lathe is basically used for repetitive batch production.
Capstan Lathe Machine:
It is similar to the Turret lathe. Used for the mass production of the light-duty workpiece. It incorporates a capstan slide which moves on the auxiliary slide and can be clamped in any position.
This is best suited for the production of small parts because of its lightweight and short stroke of capstan slide.
Speed Lathe Machine:
This is the simplest form of the lathe and consists of a simple Headstock, tailstock, and a tool post. Having no gearbox, lead screw, or carriage. Very high speed of the headstock spindle. The speed of the spindle ranges from 1200 to 3600 rpm.
Tools are hand-operated. Cone-pulley is the only source provided for speed variation of the spindle.
Speed Lathes are intensively used in woodturning, metal spinning, and polishing operation.
Tool Room lathe Machine:
Tool Room lathe is a modern engine lathe that is equipped with all the necessary accessories for accurate tool room work. It is best suited for the production of small tools, dies, gauges, etc.
It is a geared head-driven machine with a considerable range in spindle speed and feeds. Its speed can range from very low to a very high speed of up to 2500 rpm.
Bench Lathe Machine:
Bench Lathe machine is a type of small lathe machine that has all the parts of the engine Lathe and speed lathe.
It is mounted on a workbench and is used for doing small precision and light jobs.
Special purpose Lathe machine Machine:
A special purpose lathe machine is used for performing specific special tasks which cannot be performed by an ordinary lathe. Some type of special-purpose Lathe are as follow:
Gap bed lathe Machine:
In a gap bed lathe, a gap is provided over the bed near the headstock to handle the job having flanges or some other protruding parts.
Mostly a removable portion is provided in
the bed so that when it is not required it can be inserted.
Wheel lathe Machine:
Wheel lathes are special-purpose lathe machine that is used for finishing the journals and turning the tread on locomotive wheels.
T- Lathe machine Machine:
T-Lathe machine is a type of machine that has a T-shaped bed and is used in the aerospace industry for the machining of the rotors of the jet engine.
Automatic Lathe Machine:
As the name suggests automatic Lathe machine is a machine in which the complete work and the job handling movements required for the completion of the job are done automatically.
They are heavy-duty, mass-production, and high-speed machines.
CNC Lathe Machine:
Computer Numeric Control (CNC) is the most advanced form of lathe machine. CNC lathe machine produces the most accurate products as compared to the other type of lathe machine.
In this machine, programs are being fed to the computer system which controls the overall working of the lathe.
It is used for large-scale production. Semi-skilled workers are required for the operation of this machine.
Different Operations Performed on Lathe Machine:
The following different types of Lathe Machine Operation are:
Thread cutting operation
Counter Boring Operation
Countersinking Operation and
Let’s start discussing them one by one:
Turning is the most common operation performed on the lathe. Turning is a machining operation in which the diameter of the workpiece is reduced by removing the excess material from the outer diameter of the job (workpiece) which is mostly cylindrical or conical in shape.
Turning operation results in a good surface finish of the metal.
The various type of turning operations are:
Tapered Turning Operation:
Tapered Turning is a machining process in which the cylindrical jobs are machined to produce a conical surface. In taper Turning the tapered component will be produced.
The various methods used for Taper Turning are:
Compound Rest Method
Taper Turning Attachment method
Form tool Method.
Let’s discuss each
method in brief:
Taper Turning Attachment Method:
In the taper turning attachment method, the slideways are tilted by an angle equal to the taper angle of the component so that the saddle is automatically tilted and when the saddle is moving on the slideways it produces a tapered component.
It can be used for both internal, and external operations.
Up to 0.1-degree accuracy can be produced.
The maximum taper angle which can be produced is 8 degrees.
The maximum taper length of the component in one sitting is 235mm.
Compound Rest Method:
In the compound Rest Method, the compound rest is swiveled by an angle equal to the required taper angle on the component. Any taper angle can be produced by this method and both internal and external taper turning operations can be performed by this method.
The method is used for producing only external tapers. In this method, the tailstock is moved from its middle position to one side of the bed, which makes the workpiece tilted with respect to the lathe axis and feed.
Thus, when the tool moves it cuts the workpiece at an angle to the axis creating a taper.
Form Tool method:
The form tool method is used for producing external tapers only. The form tool method is a type of method in which the shape of the tool is the same as that of the shape of the component to be produced. Whatever the angle of the tool that can be produced on the component.
The accuracy produced on the component depends upon the accuracy present in the tool. It is mostly used in chamfering operations.
Shoulder Turning Operation:
Shoulder Turning is used in the case where several diameters are to be turned on the workpiece. The surface forming the step from one diameter to the other is called the shoulder.
There are four types of shoulders:
A right-cut tool is used to make the square shoulder.
Facing is a process in which the end of the workpiece is being machined by the tool which is at a right angle to the axis of the rotation of the workpiece.
Facing is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the workpiece and often the last. We can relate it to the phrase” ending-up”, which will help us in remembering its sequence.
Thread cutting is a type of operation in which the threads are cut on the internal and the outer surface of the workpiece as per the requirement.
In the thread-cutting operation, only the automatic feed is given.
The automatic feed required for the thread-cutting operation is given by using a lead screw and the feed gearbox.
127 toothed gear is used for producing Metric threads on the engine Lathe.
The feed of the lead screw has to be changed in order to get the different pitches of thread on the job.
JOB SPEED: Job speed during threading is up to 1/4th of the job speed during turning.
Parting is an operation in which the deep groves are being made on the parent material to remove the specific portion from the parent material resulting in dividing the workpiece into two or more parts.
Chamfering is the operation of beveling the extreme end of a workpiece. Chamfering is provided for:
To enable the nut to pass freely on the threaded workpiece.
Remove burrs and
Protect the end of the workpiece from being damaged.
Chamfering is done usually after knurling, thread cutting, etc…
The process of making the surface of the workpiece rough by embossing (impressing) a diamond-shaped regular pattern on the surface by making use of a knurling tool is called a knurling operation.
Knurling is done at a lower speed and plenty of oil is used. Knurling provides an effective gripping surface on a workpiece to prevent it from slipping when operated with a hand.
Drilling operation is a type of machining operation that is used to remove the material from the workpiece by making use of a drill bit, which is held stationary in the Tailstock. Finally creating a hole in the workpiece.
Drill bits are generally made up of high-speed steels and carbon steels.
Boring is an internal turning operation used for enlarging the existing holes by some amount.
It can further be divided as:
boring is an internal turning operation used for enlarging the end of the
Counter Sinking is the operation of the conical enlargement of the end of the hole. It requires a large size drill bit then that required for the hole.
It is a machining process that is done after drilling to make internal holes of a very accurate diameter. This operation helps to remove a very small amount of material from the holes which are already drilled.
Lathe Machine Operation Video:
Now we will study the Specifications of the Lathe Machine,
Lathe Machine Specification:
In order to specify the lathe Machine completely the following parameter should be included:
The length between the two centers
Height of the center
Swing Diameter over the bed
Maximum bar diameter
Tailstock sleeve travel
Metric thread pitches
Motor horsepower and RPM
Shipping dimension: (length x width x height x weight).
a) The length between the two centers:
It is the measure of the maximum length of the workpiece that can be fixed between the lathe center.
b) Height of the center:
The distance between the lathe axis and the lathe bed is called the height of the center.
c) Swing Diameter over the bed:
It is the maximum diameter of the workpiece that can be turned on a lathe without hitting the lathe bed.
d) Maximum bar diameter:
It is the maximum
diameter of the workpiece that can be passed through the hole in the headstock.
Other factors for the lathe specification are:
Tailstock sleeve travel.
Metric thread pitches.
Motor horsepower and RPM.
Shipping dimension: (length x width x height x weight).
Application of Lathe Machine:
The following application of the Lathe Machine are:
In the automobile industry mainly in the crankshaft, woodturning, Glass turning operation, for forming screw threads, also used for reclamation of the parts, and many more.
A CNC lathe finds extensive use in the several tasks being performed by it in various industries like:
of the Lathe machine:
Lathe Machine has numerous advantages, some of them are:
The lathe is a High-quality product.
It has a high speed.
It also Saves time and
1. High-Quality Products: Lathe machines, especially the CNC Lathe machine, produce final products with high quality.
2. High Speed: The machining in the lathe can be done at a very high speed, especially in automatic and CNC lathe machines.
3. Saves time: The lathe machine because of its extensive high speed and high accuracy saves a lot of time, resulting in increased production.
4. Saves Money: Lathe machine helps in reducing the cost of machining because fewer operators are required for machining.
Disadvantages of Lathe Machine:
Lathe Machine has some disadvantages too, some of them are:
The Initial cost is very high.
A highly skilled worker is required for the initial setup.
CNC machines can not use for small production.
This is all about the Definition, Introduction, Parts, Types, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages, and [Notes with PDF] of the Lathe Machine.
Steel is an alloy typically consisting of iron and carbon along with small amounts of manganese, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen. The amount of carbon content present ranges from 0.02% to 2.14% and the presence of manganese is around 1%.
Other than these, the common alloying elements include manganese, cobalt, boron, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, and niobium.
The density of steel is in the range between 7,700 and 8,050 kg/m3. The presence of carbon creates a strong molecular structure. It can take two crystalline forms, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic depending on the temperature.
Pure iron is often ductile, soft, or easily formed due to the iron atoms in the crystal structure slipping past one another.
Here the presence of carbon and other elements act as hardening agents which prevent the dislocation of atoms. As a result, the amount of carbon and other elements present in the alloy makes up for the final physical qualities of the alloy.
These qualities include quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, hardness, tensile strength, and yield strength. Evident production of steel dates back to the sixth century BC, produced in South India known as Wootz steel.
Modern evolution led to the use of blast furnaces which was followed by the use of electric furnaces for processing steel. Steel making process consists of a primary process that involves the production of pig iron. It is melted iron, from iron ore which contains more carbon than optimum for steel.
An oxidization process is used to remove excess carbon and also to vaporize or bind impurities made of elements like silicon, phosphorus, and manganese.
The secondary steel-making process involves refining and alloying the steel. It can either initialize with the use of scrap steel or be a continuation of the primary process.
This is among the world’s most important engineering and construction materials as it is used in every aspect of our lives.
Cars and construction products, refrigerators and washing machines, cargo ships, and surgical scalpels require steel for manufacturing. It can be recycled over and over again without loss of properties.
World crude steel production is estimated to reach 1,990 million tonnes (Mt) in the year 2022. Ideally, steel is magnetic except for stainless steel (chromium alloyed steel).
Ferromagnetism is dependent on the alloying element in this case. Completely recyclable and durable compared to other materials, it requires relatively low amounts of energy to produce.
It is among the most recycled materials in the world with a recycling rate of over 60%. China, Japan, Russia, and the US respectively are the largest producers of steel worldwide.
Properties of Steel
#1. Tensile Strength
The tensile strength of a material is defined as the amount of stress that the element can undergo before deforming structurally. The tensile strength of steel is comparatively high, thus making it highly resistant to fracture or breakage.
Ductility is the mechanical property, which describes the ability of an element to change its shape upon application of force to it without resulting in fracture. Steel is highly ductile and is used in producing different shapes and structures ranging from thin wires or large automotive parts and panels.
Since steel has high hardenability due to the presence of carbon, it reflects its ability to resist strain. It is highly resistant to external wear and tear which makes steel a highly durable material.
Malleability is the ability of an element to be compressed into thin sheets and allows the steel to be deformed under compression. Steel can be converted into sheets of variable thicknesses, often created by hammering or rolling.
Steel is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. As a result, it is a preferred choice in the household cookware industry along with the electrical wiring industry.
What are the Different Types or Classification of Steel?
Various different types of Steel are manufactured with variable carbon content from 0.2 to 2.1 percent by weight, classification depending upon the composition and their physical properties.
Even though the major element in steel is carbon, other alloying elements i.e. tungsten, chromium, vanadium, and magnesium, and a small amount of sulfur, silicon, phosphorus, and oxygen are also present.
The amount of alloying materials and their form of presence in iron decides important properties of steel like ductility, hardness, and tensile strength.
For example, increasing the amount of carbon makes the steel hardened and strong, but less ductile.
Classification of Steel is much more complicated due to its many properties and applications. Then too, comprehensive grading systems have been developed to accurately identify a particular type of steel within groups and subgroups.
The major types of steel are explained in detail below:
#1. Carbon steel
Carbon steel generally consists of less than 2 % carbon along with traces of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorus.
The characteristics of carbon steel are mainly influenced by the carbon content in steel and alloying elements cause only negligible changes.
Plain carbon steel can be further classified into four categories depending on the amount of carbon present.
The detailed classification is as follows:
Low Carbon Steel
In low-carbon steel types of steel, the amount of carbon is limited to 0.30. It is the most commonly used grade.
This type can be machined and welded easily. It also has ductility higher than high-carbon steel. These are used in pipes, bolts, and wires.
Medium Carbon Steel
In medium carbon steel, the amount of carbon content present is between 0.30 to 0.45 %. The increase in the amount of carbon content indicates an increase in hardness and tensile strength and a decrease in ductility.
But, because of the higher carbon content, its machining and welding properties become lower than low-carbon steel due to the increased hardness. These are found in gears and railroad tracks.
High Carbon Steel
High carbon steel contains 0.45 to 0.75%. These types of steel have complicated welding and machining properties.
So, for any type of molding work heat treatment is necessary to produce acceptable welds. It is also used to control the mechanical properties of steel after welding.
Very High Carbon Steel
In very high-carbon steel, the amount of carbon content present is above 0.61% and goes up to 1.50%. To deal with the high carbon content present in the steel, it requires heat treatment before, during, and after welding to manipulate its mechanical properties.
This high carbon type is used to manufacture hard steel products such as truck springs and metal cutting tools. These do not contain more than 2% carbon.
Designation system of Carbon steel
The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) together with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) introduced a four-digit designation system for better identification of each element.
The 1st letter of the digit indicates either it is alloy steel or carbon steel.
Number 1 indicates carbon steel and numbers 2-9 are used for alloy steels.
The second digit is used to indicate whether the steel has been modified.
0 – Non modified plain carbon
1 – Resulfurized
2 – Resulfurized and phosphorized
5 – Non desulfurized, Manganese over 1.0%
Last two digits
The last two digits show carbon concentration in terms of 0.01%.
For example, SAE 1045: In which 1 indicated plain carbon (non-modified) steel and consists of 0.45% carbon.
#2. Alloy Steel
Alloy steel is a type of carbon steel, which consists of one or more elements other than carbon, added to produce the desired characteristic.
Each added element contributes its separate attribute to the final product. Generally, elements such as silicon, boron, chromium-molybdenum, manganese, nickel, and vanadium are added as external elements.
There are two types of alloy steel, namely low alloy steel and high alloy steel. The detailed explanation is as follows,
Low alloy steel
In low alloy steel, the amount of carbon content present is generally between 0.15% to 0.25 %, suitable for welding purposes.
Some of the alloying elements used are manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, silicon, vanadium, and boron and the less common alloying elements are aluminum, cobalt, copper, titanium, tungsten, tin, and zirconium.
Low alloy steel is most preferably used to achieve better hardenability and increased corrosion resistance in certain environments. Difficulty to weld is a certain drawback for these types of steel.
If the carbon content is decreased up to 0.10 percent, along with other alloying materials, the strength of the material can be increased. The versatility of these makes them hem essential in modern industrial development.
Common applications include electrical wiring, heat exchanger, anti-drill plates, high-strength safes, pipelines, electrical transformers, and permanent magnets.
High alloy steel
Generally, steel having other elements more than 8% of total weight other than carbon and iron is known as high alloy steel. High alloy steel essentially has two chemical elements, one is carbon and the other is the added element.
The properties of these types of steel depend on the percentage of the chemical elements present in it. One of its major advantages is that it offers high corrosion resistance along with high reliability.
These types of high-carbon steel are extensively used in driers, pipelines, couplings, valves, bolts, salt manufacturing, nuclear power plants, heat exchangers, centrifugal separators, exhaust gas desulfurized, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and semiconductor cleaning equipment.
Designation system for Alloy Steel
The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) together with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) developed a four-digit designation system for better identification of alloy steels. As per the four-digit classification of the SAE-AISI system:
The first digit indicates the class of alloy steel:
2- Nickel steel
3- Nickel-chromium steel
4- Molybdenum steel
5- Chromium steels
6- Chromium-vanadium steels
7- Tungsten-chromium steels
9- Silicon-manganese steels
The second digit shows the concentration of the major element present, in percentages. If the 2nd element is 1 or 2 it means 1% or 2%, respectively.
Last two digits
The last two digits indicate carbon concentration, in terms of 0.01%.
For example, SAE 6230: is indicates an alloy of Chromium-vanadium steel, consisting of 2% chromium and 0.30% carbon.
#3. Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is a type of steel that is corrosion and rust-resistant. Invented in England in 1913 by Harry Brearley, it was announced to the world in 1915.
Chromium is the element that sets it apart, which is responsible for the materials’ luster. But it is more than just a cosmetic addiction, as chromium is oxidation resistant and thus the antirust has a direct relation with materials’ increased longevity.
Stainless steel has a chromium content of more than 10.5% and can go up to 30% in some applications. Chromium content is directly professional to the gloss when polished and the corrosion resistance. It has almost 150 types of grades, but only 15 are used commonly.
It is commonly known for its role in medical equipment and appliance manufacturing, also with kitchen appliances. Stainless steel can act differently when chromium is electroplated onto another metal and produce a tough, polished coating.
This is classified into four categories, with each serving a different purpose.
Martensitic alloys are extremely tough but prove to be corrosive. These are formed by a rapid cooling process, ideal for heat treatment, and are found in cutlery, medical instruments, and pliers.
Ferritic alloys contain low amounts of carbon and nickel. These are less expensive and are extensively used in the automotive industry because of their chromium-induced strength and sheen.
These consist of higher chromium and nickel content, which helps to improve the corrosion resistance and become nonmagnetic. Most commonly used in the commercial kitchen industry because of its durability and ability to be cleaned easily.
Duplex alloys are a mixture of austenitic and terrific alloys which results in the doubling of strength while also inheriting the properties of both. Due to the presence of high chromium content, these are highly resistant to corrosion and are known for their ductility.
Designation system for Stainless Steel
The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) created a three-digit system for stainless steel:
Tool and die steel ideally has a carbon content range between 0.7% to 1.5%. These are manufactured in carefully controlled conditions to produce the desired quality of steel.
Tool steels are heat treatable and are very high carbon steels (either carbon or alloy) possessing high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. Elements forming hard and stable carbides are added to the composition to increase the hardness of the steel tool.
Processes such as tempering, adding high heat, cooling quickly and heating make the tool steel extremely hard and heat-resistant. These are extensively used in high-impact environments and are very abrasive.
These are mainly used for making hummers, drills, cutters, shear blades, chisels, forging dies, drills, and razors.
Tool and die steels can be classified depending on their use, composition, mechanical properties, and method of heat treatment.
A variety of grades of tool and die steel are available for different application purposes. The added element plays a role in determining the particular application it’s suited for.
This steel can be exposed to high temperatures without distorting due to the presence of high carbon content in this.
This tool is water quenched during use and is the most affordable tooling type. Extensively used to make common tools.
This type of tool is oil-quenched during use and is exceptionally wear-resistant from slipping. It is commonly used to produce knives and shears.
As the name suggests, these are made for extensive high-impact use and are extremely abrasive. It’s generally used in power saws and drill bits.
The ability to withstand extreme heat is a unique feature of this steel. It is used in forging and casting.
Carbon, silicon, and molybdenum are added in small amounts to harden this steel and make it suitable for punches and riveting tools.
Designation system for Tool and Die steel
The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) along with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), developed a one-letter system for the identification is tool steels.
W- water-hardened plain carbon tool
O- oil hardening cold work alloy
A- air hardening cold work alloy
D- diffused hardening cold work alloy
S- shock resistance low carbon tool
T- high-speed tungsten tool
M-high-speed molybdenum tool
H- hot work tool and
P- plastic mold tool steel
How Steels are manufactured or the Production of Steel?
Steel is manufactured via two major routes, the Blast Furnace-Basic Oxygen Furnace (BF-BOF) route and the Electric Arc Furnace route (EAF).
These are often referred to as the ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ paths. The former method creates new or ‘virgin’ steel and the latter is often used to recycle the steel scrap.
A detailed overview of the methods is described below:
#1. Basic Oxygen Furnace
Blast Furnace Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking (BF-BOF/BF-BOS) or the Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren steelmaking is an oxygen converter process. It involves both molten pig iron and steel scrap converted into steel with the oxidizing action of oxygen blown into the melt under a basic slag.
Also called the Basic Oxygen process and Basic Oxygen Converter, it is the most efficient yet powerful and effective teel-making method and it is evident in the percentage of adaptation by the industry.
It involves a reduction process, which is used to reduce the iron oxide present. A reducing agent called oxygen carbon is used to separate the iron atoms.
The oxides form a bond with the reducing agent and emit CO2. The steps of the process involved Furnace structure, Refractory lining, and Chemical, and physical processes.
BOFs consist of conventional top-blown furnaces, bottom-blown furnaces, various fixed-blowing configurations along with inert gas bottom-stirring modifications.
The top-blown basic oxygen furnace involves water-cooled oxygen for blowing oxygen into the melt through 4-6 nozzles. The flow of oxygen commonly reaches around 200-280 ft3/(min*t) (6-8 m3/(min*t)). The oxygen pressure is in the range of 150-220 psi.
The expected service life of an oxygen lance is about 400 heats. The bottom-blown basic oxygen furnace involves 15-20 tuyeres, for injecting oxygen or lime powder containing oxygen.
The tuyeres are then cooled either by hydrocarbon gas or oil supplied to the outer jacket of the tube. The global crude steel total output through the Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking process is about 67% and is recognized as the dominant steelmaking technology.
Large European blast furnaces produce about 4 million tonnes per year.
Electric Arc Furnace
Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) is a steel-making process that involves a furnace in which steel scrap is heated and melted with the help of the heat of electric arcs striking between the furnace electrodes and the metal bath.
Two types of electric current may be used in Electric Arc Furnaces: direct (DC) and alternating (AC). Three-phase AC Electric Arc Furnaces containing graphite electrodes are extensively used in steel making.
A major advantage of electric Arc Furnaces over basic Oxygen Furnaces (BOF) is their capability to treat charges containing up to 100% of scrap. About 33% of steel production in the world is made in electric Arc Furnaces (EAF).
The capacity of the Electric Arc Furnace can reach up to 400 t. The core of the process are:
Structure of an Electric Arc Furnace, Refractory lining of an Electric Arc Furnace, Chemical and physical processes.
Operation of an Electric Arc Furnace
The structure of the furnace contains a spherical hearth (bottom), a cylindrical shell, and a swinging water-cooled dome-shaped roof.
The roof has three holes for the graphite electrodes held by a clamping mechanism. This mechanism provides an independent lifting-lowering of each electrode.
The water-cooled electrode holders act as a contact for transmitting electric current supplied by water-cooled cables (tubes). The three-phase current is formed by the electrode and the scrap in which the scrap is a common junction.
A tilting mechanism for tapping the molten steel through a tap hole with a pour spout located on the back side of the shell is mounted by the furnace.
The charging door is a passage through which the slag components and alloying additives are charged and it is located on the front side of the furnace shell.
The charging door is also used for de-slagging (removing slag). The furnace top commonly charges the scrap. The scrap arranged is then transferred to the furnace by a crane and then dropped into the shell.
Application or Uses of Steel:
#1. Building and infrastructure (51%)
Around half of the steel produced annually is utilized to construct buildings and infrastructure such as bridges. It is mostly found in reinforcing bars, and sheet products used in roofs, internal walls, ceilings, and structural sections.
It is also found in HVAC systems and items such as stairs, rails, and shelving.
Moreover, applications of steel in transportation-related infrastructure include tunnels, rail tracks fueling stations, train stations, ports, and airports.
#2. Mechanical equipment(15%)
The application in mechanical equipment involves machinery that makes car parts, cranes, and hand tools such as hammers and shovels along with tractors and bulldozers.
#3. Automotive (12%)
Around 2,000 pounds, or 900 kilograms, of steel, is used to make a car. About a third of that is utilized in the body structure and exterior and 23% is in the drive train, also with 12% in the suspension. A modern-day car structure contains around 60% steel of total body weight, even though the steel used is advanced high strength which is stronger and lighter.
#4. Domestic and electrical appliances (6%)
Varying amounts of steel are present in washers and dryers, microwave ovens, dishwashers, and refrigerators.
Moreover, applications in the production and distribution of electricity include transformers, which have a magnetic steel core, generators, electric motors, pylons, and steel-reinforced cables.
Different Types of Measuring Tools and their Uses [Notes & PDF]
Measuring tools are devices used to measure and compare the quantities of real-world objects and events. The measurement gives a number to quantify the item under study and the referenced unit of measurement.
Measuring tools with perfect methods that describe the use of the tools are how these relations of numbers are obtained. A single error in measurement can ruin the whole project and in order to avoid such errors, it is required to be well-versed in the different types of measuring tools and their functions.
The purpose of measurement tools is to make our lives better and safer, and hence they enhance the quality and quantity of life.
Arguably, the ability to measure physical properties accurately has a direct correlation with the survival value that thus gives humans an adaptive, evolutionary advantage honed through many years of natural selection.
The overall purpose of measurement can be categorized into measurement being in the service of quality, monitoring, safety, design, assembly, and problem-solving.
It is noteworthy that measurement sometimes serves multiple purposes. Therefore, to help you introduce these tools, we have gathered a list of essential measuring tools with their use.
Some of the most essential measuring tools in today’s industry are Caliper, Compass, Micrometer, Pressure gauge, Speedometer, Tape measurer, Measuring squares, Odometer, Thermometer, and many more.
What are the Different Types of Measuring Tools?
#1. Measuring Tape
The measuring tape is among the most versatile measuring devices. It is a ruler that can be folded into any form and it is used to measure length or width.
In the simplest form, they consist of a fabric or plastic ribbon with measures in inches, centimeters, and/or millimeters written on.
One end of the measuring tape usually consists of a hook or a lock to get an error-free measurement.
A spring-loaded housing that can be clipped onto a belt is utilized by the self-detecting metal tape.
The most frequent tape measures are of the size with lengths of 12 feet, 25 feet, or 100 feet.
The shape makes it very convenient to carry huge length measurements in your pocket, also allowing you to measure curves and corners.
In today’s fast-evolving technology, it may be found almost anywhere, even in miniature items.
A compass is a drawing instrument technically used for drawing circles and arcs in geometry. It is a very useful measuring tool that may be used for a variety of tasks such as algebra, drafting, navigation, and other things.
The word is derived from the Latin word compasses which means ‘circle’ in Latin. It is a very familiar word in the field of architecture as well. Its utilization extends to the shipbuilding and carpentry processes as well.
Compasses have two “legs” which are used to adjust or change the radius of the circle drawn and the legs are made up of metal.
One leg is used to hold the center of the circle and the other leg is measured to the distance of the radii and used to draw the circumference. It is also utilized as a divider to separate distances, especially on maps.
The speedometer is a very common type of measuring tool used for determining and displaying a vehicle’s speed.
Since the 1900s, motor vehicles have been equipped with these and used as the standard equipment. The speedometer’s mechanism revolves around a round magnet that rotates 1,000 times each mile of vehicle travel.
The types of speedometers have eventually increased with time, employing different names and different speed-sensing mechanisms. These measuring tools can be classified among precision measuring equipment.
Upon classification, speedometers in the modern age consist of mainly two types- Mechanical and Digital Eddy current speedometers.
While mechanical speedometers worked on the mechanism of the rotating magnet, the eddy current speedometer works on the measurement of rotational speed. This is done by measuring the speed generated by the transmission and delivering the information to the drive cable.
The drive cable is the attachment between the transmission and instrument cluster in the vehicle’s deck. The instrument cluster contains a needle, which is held in place by a hairspring and is used to indicate the vehicle speed.
Another type of speedometer is an electric speedometer, which receives its data from the vehicle speed sensor instead of the drive cable.
Its located near the transmission output shaft and has a magnetic field around it which creates impulses. For every 40,000 impulses, the odometer increases by one mile.
As the name suggests, thermometers are devices used to measure temperature. It is an essential device in fields such as manufacturing, scientific research, and medical practice.
These are often inexpensive, long-lasting, and accurate, and calibration is simple. The working of a thermometer is made up of two parts: a temperature sensor to detect the temperature change, and a transformation of that change into a numerical value (Fahrenheit and Degree celsius unit.
The medium used for the working changes with the type of thermometer. The major types include Liquid thermometers, Dial thermometers, and electronic thermometers.
Liquid thermometers are the simplest, typically consisting of a liquid in a tube that rises and falls against a linear scale (one with equally spaced divisions) marked with the temperature. The liquids used are usually mercury or alcohol-based.
Dial thermometers work like a gauge with a metallic pointer and metallic strip. The metallic strips are designed to expand and bend with the temperature change. The metallic pointer expands with the increase in temperature and the more the pointer pushes up the scale.
Electronic thermometers were designed to overcome the time delay caused by the other methods.
These work on the principle of resistance of a piece of metal with the temperature change. These work by putting a voltage across its metal probe and measuring the amount of current flow in it. The higher the temperature, the higher the resistance.
These thermometers have a microchip inside to measure and convert the resistance into temperature. Thermometers are extensively utilized in technology and industry, meteorology, medicine, and scientific research to monitor processes.
#5. Digital angle gauge
Angle gauges were established to measure difficult angles accurately and to create reliable data. These types of equipment made it simple to measure any angle surface.
A digital angle gauge is more accurate, easier to operate, and faster than an analog angle gauge. These have a powerful magnetic base along with automatic calibration settings for establishing the correct bevel and miter angles on powered saws.
Digital angle gauges are inexpensive along with being extremely precise.
A digital angle gauge consists of a gauge body that has a reference surface that is engageable with an object to be measured for angular inclination.
An angle sensor and processor mounted in the body determine the inclination angle of the object with which the reference surface of the gauge body is engaged. These have accuracy in the range of ±0.1- 0.2.
A micrometer is a device used for measuring linear dimensions such as lengths, thickness, and diameters. These types of measuring tools look like a caliper, but it screws down, instead of sliding mechanism.
It consists of a ratchet knob attached to the spindle, the spindle is connected to the anvil via a C-shaped frame that has a movable jaw. The movement of the setup is controlled using the ratchet.
The object to be measured is placed in between the spindle and the anvil. The spindle is extremely accurate, and the ratchet knob is adjusted to revolve the spindle until the object is locked in between the anvil and the spindle.
The scale on the ratchet knob is used to measure the dimension. They are sometimes known as screw gauges or calipers due to their resemblance in structure.
In digital micrometers, the work distance between the two caliper heads is quickly measured. It also allows measurements accurate up to three or four decimal places.
Devices such as Micrometers, along with dials, verniers, and digital calipers, are commonly used for precise component measurement in mechanical engineering and manufacturing, as well as in most mechanical trades.
#7. Measuring Squares
Measuring Squares devices that consist of two straightedges set at right angles to each other. Squares are often used for measuring a 90° angle, whereas a miter square is used to measure and refer to a 45° angle.
Its application is to incorporate a straight line or angle while drawing or marking the dimensions. Some special types of these tools are combination squares, drywall squares, framing squares, and speed squares.
Carpenters and machinists extensively use them to analyze the precision of right angles when drawing lines on the material before cutting.
A scale (ruler) for measuring distances or calculating angles is also one sort of square measuring device. These are commonly referred to as the carpenter’s square.
#8. Angel Locator
The angle locator is also referred to as an angle finder. It is used to measure angles and replicate the angle of an existing area. These are commonly utilized in the construction or carpentry industry.
This measuring tool consists of a magnetic base that allows them to be attached to metal measuring objects. It is a manual tool with a digital display that needs to be placed at the ends of the workpiece and use the readings obtained to determine your angle.
The use of the angle locator allows easy at-a-glance measurement of angles from 0° to 90°. This device becomes essential when there is a need to find an angle inside a closet or small space, so having a tool like this will greatly simplify the process.
#9. Bubble Inclinometer
As the name implies, an inclinometer is a device used to measure an inclination. In other words, an inclinometer is used for measuring angles of slope, elevation, or depression of an object concerning gravity’s direction.
Clinometers can measure both inclines and declines. The three different units of measure are namely degrees, percentage points, and topos.
It is an essential and smart choice to determine a particular inclination or declination. These are specifically designed to measure the range of motion of a joint and can also be used to measure the stability of the grade.
To identify the range of motion of a joint, the bubble inclinometer is set to zero, and then the change in slope is determined by the difference as it undergoes its changes.
This application is often utilized by sports therapists to determine a healthy range of motion at critical junctures of the body. Other applications can be found in the aircraft industry and game controllers.
A caliper is an instrument used to measure the dimensions of an object such as thickness, outside and inside diameter, length, width, and depth. These measuring tools facilitate multiple-dimensional measurements and are usually made of steel.
The applications of these tools are used in engineering, medicine, construction, household, and metalworking.
The object to be measured is placed in between the tips or teeth of the caliper.
By adjusting the tips of the calipers to fit across the object to be measured, the total length can be easily measured with the help of a fixed ruler.
The measurement can be read on a controlled scale, dial, or digital display in different types of calipers. Moreover, calipers can be used for measuring the separation between two surfaces of an object.
The caliper is removed after the tips have been adjusted to the ends of the object being measured and the reading is obtained by measuring the distance between the tips using a measuring tool, such as a ruler.
There are numerous varieties of calipers in terms of dimensions, including outside, inside, spring, transfer, and hermaphrodite calipers.
The different variants of the caliper in terms of applications include the vernier scale, digital caliper, compass, dial caliper, odd leg caliper, and micrometer caliper.
The level is a type of measuring tool that is used to establish or verify points in the same horizontal plane in a process known as leveling, indicating the horizontal plane.
It is an optical device that consists of air bubbles in a liquid medium to display measured results.
It is used in conjunction with a leveling staff to establish the relative height levels of objects or marks. It is used to measure height differences and to transfer, measure, and set heights of known objects or marks in the fields of construction.
It consists of a tube that is sealed and fixed horizontally to a block of wood with a smooth bottom surface.
When the glass tube of the level is tilted, the adjustment in the horizontal is indicated by the movement of the bubble.
Builders generally use longer-level instruments that range from 2-, 4- or 6 feet in length.
Modern automatic levels work on the principle of establishing a visual level relationship between two or more points, for which an inbuilt telescope and a highly accurate bubble level are used to achieve the necessary accuracy, also the modern automatic versions self-compensate for slight errors in the coarse leveling of the traditional instrument, and are thereby quicker to use.
These are utilized in construction works, woodworking, and metalworking shops.
#12. Laser Level
The laser level is a controlling and measuring tool that consists of a rotating laser beam projector that is firmly entrenched in a tripod.
The leveling is as per the accuracy of the tool and it projects a fixed green or red beam in a plane about the horizontal and/or vertical axis.
Certain types can measure the distance from the unit up to the end of the laser beam. This avails a fast and accurate solution for worksite distance measurement.
Types of laser levels are tower mounted and rotary laser level. A tower-mounted laser level is used along with a sensor on a wheel tractor-scraper in the process of land laser leveling.
A rotary laser level is more of an advanced laser level. It spins the beam of light in such a way that it gives the effect of a complete 360-degree horizontal or vertical plane.
This causes the level to illuminate not just a fixed line, but a horizontal plane. Laser levels are commonly utilized for leveling and aligning applications in the construction and surveying industry.
The odometer is a measuring device used in automobiles to measure the distance traveled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or a car. The distance traveled by car is used for maintenance purposes. It can be produced either electronically, mechanically, or by a combination of both (electromechanical).
Earlier, most odometers used to work by counting wheel rotations and assuming that the distance traveled is the number of wheel rotations times the tire circumference, which is a standard tire diameter times pi (3.1416).
But it could create errors if nonstandard or severely worn or underinflated tires are used. Mechanical odometers are the most common type. It is mounted by a flexible cable made from a tightly wound spring in bikes.
In cars, mechanical odometers are a pair of gears with an incredibly excess gear ratio. Such odometers are being replaced by digital odometers that offer additional features and are cheaper, but they have limited life capacity.
In modern-day cars, electronic odometers are used. These contain a toothed wheel mounted to the output shaft of the transmission and a magnetic sensor that counts the pulses as each tooth of the wheel goes by.
The distance covered (along with a lot of other data) is a single-wire single-wire communications bus from the engine control unit (ECU) to the dashboard.
The trip meter is a deviation from the odometer yet a part of it. It is reset at any point in a journey, making it possible to record the distance traveled in any particular journey or part of a journey.
#14. Pressure Gauge
Measurement of the pressure means analyzing the force applied by the fluid on a surface. The purpose of the pressure gauge is to measure and display the pressure. These are used to quantify everything from altitude to air pressure to depth to blood pressure.
It is measured in units of force per unit of surface area and the unit is Pascal. Pressure gauges are mainly of four types, namely gauge, ambient, absolute, and differential.
These are nothing but measurements of pressure concerning various surrounding factors. Gauge pressure involves a vented environment with ambient atmospheric pressure.
Sealed pressure involves the measurement of pressure applied to a sealed chamber closed with atmospheric pressure.
In absolute pressure, measurements are conducted in areas in a vacuum chamber removed from air (generating absolute pressure) for a reading of input pressure.
The differential pressure measurement is the difference between two pressures, usually between ambient and those internal to a sensor.
A pressure gauge is easy to read and often appears on the screen rapidly. Hydrostatic and aneroid gauges are among the most common types of analog pressure gauges.
Important applications of pressure include refrigeration and heating systems which require constant monitoring of pressure.
A ruler is a tool used to measure distances or draw straight lines in geometry and technical drawing as well as in the engineering and construction industries.
It is a staple in any workshop, acting as a basic tool for measuring length, drawing lines, and serving as a guide for cutting. The use of rulers dates back to 2650 B.C.
It is called ruler because of the meaning of the verb rule, “to exercise power” or “to control,” which came to also mean “mark with lines” in the 1590s. Commercially be termed as the most simple yet important measuring tools used in today’s industry.
The simplest purpose of measuring lateral dimensions plays an important role in the engineering and construction process. Commercially, they are mostly found in engineering, where they are used to ensure accurate measurements on flat surfaces.
The standard of measurement in a ruler is in both metric and customary units.
The distance on the line above is in centimeters and on the line below is in inches, and the interval in the ruler is called the hash mark. Rulers undoubtedly are probably the most semi-circle-shaped tool in use today.
Protractors are semi-circle-shaped measuring devices often made-up of plastic or glass. These are used to measure angles and are commonly marked with degrees.
Protractors that measure in radians are more mathematically oriented protractors that can be found on occasion.
A common protractor is shaped like a half circle, with an inner and outer scale, with marks indicating the range of 0 to 180 degrees. To measure an angle, the baseline is used as a pothe int of reference over which the baseline of the protractor is the angle.
Moreover, the center of the baseline should match with the vertices the s of tgla e and the angle should be counted from the side of the ray (Assumed in the case of a quadrilateral).
A tool called an angle protractor is used for more precise measurements often by engineers and designers. A further advanced protractor is a bevel protractor that has one or two swinging arms for measuring angles.
What are the Different Types of Car Lights & Headlights? [Notes & PDF]
A car headlight is a device used to illuminate the road ahead in vehicles and is located at the front end of the vehicle. These are also referred to as Headlamps. But in terms of usage, the headlamp is the term used for the light source device and the headlight is the term for the beam of light, which is produced and distributed uniformly by the device.
These are one of the most essential features of a car as they play a very significant role in ensuring safety and drivability.
According to the US NHTSA which is a traffic safety administration, half of all traffic-related fatalities occur in the dark, despite only 25% of traffic traveling during darkness.
The primary objective of using headlights is to illuminate the road ahead and facilitate a fatigue-free visual for the driver.
Car Headlights and other light sources are thus the visual components associated with vehicle safety. These require official approval and are not the components to tamper with.
The nature and position of the lights on the vehicle and their design, colors, and photometric values are regulated by law.
The use of headlights in automobiles dates back to the 1880s with the use of gas headlamps.
Headlights come in different shapes and sizes along with various types of lenses and bulbs. These characteristics are used to differentiate between the types of headlights along with the likes of focus, the energy required, and light color.
Let’s see what are different types of headlights used.
History of Headlights in Automobiles:
The earliest headlights were fueled using acetylene gas or oil and operated during the late 1880s as the lamps were popular because the flame is resistant to wind and rain.
Pockley Automobile Electric Lighting Syndicate, located in Birmingham England marketed the world’s first electric lights as a complete set in 1908. It consisted of headlamps, side lamps, and tail lights and was powered by an eight-volt battery.
Cadillac integrated an electrical ignition and lighting system in their vehicle, which formed the modern vehicle electrical system in 1912.
The Guide Lamp Company integrated low-beam or dipping headlamps in 1915. The 1917 Cadillac model allowed the dipping light to be switched using a lever inside the car rather than requiring one to get out of the vehicle.
The foot-operated dip switch was introduced in 1927 and it became a standard.
Steering-linked lighting levers were integrated into the 1947 center-mounted Tucker Torpedo’s headlight.
In 1962, European headlamp makers introduced the halogen bulb for vehicle headlight use. These became available for use in the United States years later in 1979.
BMW introduced the High-intensity discharge (HID) systems in the BMW 7 Series in the early 1990s.
Different Types of Lights & Headlights used in the Car?
#1. Filament bulb:
A Filament headlight contains a thin tungsten filament that is surrounded by a vacuum in a glass filament capsule that is used, due to its extreme resistance to high temperatures.
These simple filament bulbs were used in the oldest cars and are similar to the bulbs used for household purposes.
These bulbs are heavy duty usually found in sealed beam reflective headlights and the tungsten filament is suspended in a vacuum.
The working of the filament bulb headlights depends on the passing of electricity through the tungsten filament inside the glass capsule. When electricity is passed through it, the filament heats and gives off light.
These headlights produce a yellowish-colored light and consume more energy for their function.
Moreover, these are generally much hotter than other headlights. The tungsten evaporates during the process and is deposited on the inner surface of the bulb.
This causes the bulb to blacken out, which makes the filament weak and eventually break. As a result, many European countries have begun a phase-out of these bulbs due to inefficiency.
#2. Halogen Light:
A halogen headlight contains a thin tungsten filament that is surrounded by a halogen gas in a glass filament capsule that is used, due to its extreme resistance to high temperatures. These are almost the replica of the filament bulb lights, except that these headlights use halogen gases like bromide or iodide inside them.
The tungsten heats up to approximately 2,500° Celsius due to the electrical current and it starts to glow, this is called an incandescent process.
The bulb requires an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine for its work. A halogen bulb is similar to a regular electric bulb used for household purposes. The regular bulb has a filament wire that heats up and emits light. But the halogen lamp uses halogen gas to increase brightness.
The primary objective of a halogen gas involves extending the life of the tungsten filament.
Halogen headlights are found to be used on approximately 80% of the cars on the road today which makes them the most commonly available type of headlights.
The lifespan of these headlights ranges from about 450 hours to 1000 hours. The reason for the lifespan is because of heat and efficiency, which are both big factors.
The lamp used is also known as quartz halogen and tungsten halogen lamp. It is a processed form of the incandescent lamp.
The filament consists of ductile tungsten and is located in a gas-filled bulb just like a standard tungsten bulb. While operating at a higher filament temperature, results in more lumens output per watt input, a tungsten-halogen lamp has a much longer brightness lifetime than the other similar filaments operating without the halogen regeneration cycle.
The gas used in a halogen bulb is at high pressure (7-8 ATM) and the glass bulb is made up of fused quartz, high-silica glass, or aluminosilicate.
The glass used is stronger than the standard glass as it helps to contain the high pressure. This lamp is preferred as an industry standard for work and film/television lighting due to its moderate size and high-lumen output.
The halogen lamp is being replaced slowly by the white LED lamp, the miniature HID and fluorescent lamps, etc.
Advanced technology for increased efficiency halogens with 30+ lumens/watt is being brought into the market to change the sales decline in the future.
Halogen Headlight Advantages:
The advantages of Halogen-based headlights are that the lamps are small and lightweight, the production cost is low, and they do not use mercury as in CFLs i.e fluorescent or mercury vapor lights.
These also have a better color temperature than standard tungsten (2800-3400 K), it is more similar to the sunlight than the “orange” standard tungsten.
It can sustain for a longer amount of time than conventional incandescent.
Moreover, it does require any warm-up time and can be switched on to full brightness instantly. It is also dimmable.
The disadvantage of Halogen Headlight:
The disadvantages related to Halogen headlights include extremely hot surfaces which are easily capable of causing severe burns if the lamp is touched, the lamp is too sensitive to oils left by the human skin and if you touch it the oil left behind will heat up once the bulb is activated and the oil may cause an imbalance resulting in a rupture of the bulb.
The bulb also has a chance of blowing up and sending hot glass shards outward. A screen or layer of glass on the outside of the lamp is required to protect the users.
HID is an abbreviation for High-intensity discharge lamps which are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp producing light utilizing an electric arc. It is between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.
The tube contains noble gas and often also consists of a suitable metal or metal salts. It is also known by the means of xenon lights due to the involvement of the noble gas in the working.
The filament does not get heated up, instead, xenon gas is electrically charged. HID produces a bluish-white light that is similar to natural light.
The arc’s initial strike is enabled by the noble gas. Once the arc starts, it heats up and evaporates the metallic mixture.
Its presence in the arc plasma helps to increase the intensity of visible light which is produced by the arc for given power input.
The metals tend to emit many spectral lines in the visible part of the spectrum. High-intensity discharge lamps are considered a type of arc lamp.
Different types of chemical variations are used in the arc tubes of HID lamps. It is dependent on the desired characteristics of light intensity, color rendering index (CRI), energy efficiency, correlated color temperature, and lifespan.
Varieties of HID lamps include Mercury halide lamps, Metal halide (MH) lamps, Ceramic MH lamps, sodium vapor lamps, and xenon short arc lamps.
The light-producing element of the lamp types is a stabilized arc discharge. It is contained within a refractory envelope arc tube with a wall loading of more than 3 W/cm².
Mercury-vapor lamps were the first commercially available HID lamps and they produced a bluish-green light. But the latest versions of these can produce light with a less defined color tint.
Metal-halide and ceramic metal-halide lamps can be used to obtain white light useful for applications such as entertainment and sports lighting.
Low-pressure sodium-vapor lamps are more efficient as they tend to produce a deep yellow-orange light and have an effective color rendering index (CRI) of about zero. Items viewed under low-pressure sodium vapor light appear monochromatic which makes them effective and useful as photographic safelights.
High-pressure sodium lamps are the opposite as they tend to produce a much whiter light with a characteristic orange-pink cast.
Advantages & Disadvantages:
The advantages of HID lights are that these lights are about 2 1/2 times more powerful than comparable standard halogen lights. They tend to produce a white-hot beam against that of the sunlight in halogen.
The disadvantages are that like fluorescent lamps, even HID lamps require the ballast to start and maintain the arc.
The methods used for the initial striking of the arc vary, namely mercury-vapor lamps and some metal-halide lamps use the third electrode near one of the main electrodes to get started, while other lamp styles are notably started using pulses of high voltage.
HID lamps have a small delay before lighting up and take some time to achieve full brightness.
This lighting is an advanced technology used to produce crystal-clear light. LED abbreviates for Light Emitting Diode. It is a simple semiconductor that emits light when current is passed through it.
The current in the semiconductor flows only in one direction. The energy drawn from the battery to emit light is less than the halogen and xenon lights in the case of the LED, as it requires relatively little current to illuminate.
The working of the LED lights is based on the flow of current from cathode to anode passing through the semiconducting material, which is a material with conductivity somewhere between metal and rubber.
It is made by mixing a material that can conduct electricity with an insulating material.
The semiconductor then emits photons which then illuminate the road ahead. These headlights produce a brighter, whiter light and tend to put out around 2,000-4,000 lumens.
As a result, LED lights illuminate more areas and get a clear view.
The classic standard variant LED is cylindrical and is a hemisphere at the end where the light is emitted.
A simple LED contains parts such as an LED chip, a reflector tray connected to the cathode, a gold wire connected to the anode, and a plastic lens to combine and hold the components.
Different types and designs are present in LEDs. The most important ones are leaded LEDs, Superflux, SMD, High power, and COB.
A Leaded LED consists of a cathode shorter than the anode. SuperFlux LEDs are more powerful than leaded LEDs, achieving broader beam angle, hood heat dissipation, and long service life.
SMD i.e Surface Mounted Device is a diode that is surface mounted. These are insensitive and shine intensively.
These LEDs usually consist of three to four chips with contacts soldered to the connection surface.
The advantages of LEDs are that they are energy efficient and produce very little heat, provide superior durability with a long-predicted lifetime of about 20000 hours which is almost 20 hours longer than halogen lights, provide an alternative method for daytime running lights, and provide a clear and effective view of the road at night.
Although the brightness is not as significant as HID, LEDs are around 2.75 times stronger and have brighter light than halogen.
These also have a fast switch on-off capability and require low operational voltage. The disadvantages of LEDs include the requirement of an extra cooling component for the small amount of heat emitted, difficulty in designing an optimum LED lamp, and incredibly expensive and complex design.
#5. Matrix Headlights
A matrix is an advanced form of LED light. These consist of many individual smaller LED lights working in unison to make a headlight. All of these smaller LEDs are controlled independently.
Termed “smart” lights, it is also called Adaptive LED or Pixel lighting. It has a camera mounted on the inside rearview mirror to detect the lights of oncoming vehicles.
An onboard computer detects and registers the lights from the incoming vehicle and sends the signal to the housing.
The system turns OFF the individual LEDs that affect the lighting of the oncoming vehicle while the remaining LEDs are ON.
As the vehicle approaches, the individual LEDs cover up the gap, lighting ahead.
The advantage of Matrix lights is that the driver can use the high beam lights without needing to switch between low beams, even when there is incoming traffic.
The disadvantage of such lights is that many components need to work in unison for the lighting system to work and as a result, if one of the components fails the whole system can fail.
The use of lasers is the latest technology introduced in the automobile industry. The Laser headlights contain one or more solid-state laser diodes, mounted inside the headlight.
These emit blue lasers fired at a yellow phosphor, similar to that used in white LEDs. A powerful, vibrant white light that can then be bounced off reflectors and out of the headlights towards the road is produced.
The regular low-beam lamp LED is used with the laser to create an incredibly bright and focused spot which is used for high beams.
This provides illumination up to 600 meters ahead of the vehicle, double that of conventional LED high beams.
The lights use indium gallium nitride diode lasers with the layers above with power levels above worth 1 watt.
It is based on light from 3 sources that fall on a mirror inside the headlight housing.
The blue laser out of this is reflected from the mirror through a lens that contains yellow phosphorus and this yellow phosphorus is excited by the blue laser light and produces a white beam.
The reflected white light is reflected on the shiny reflective surface which throws the light through the lens on the road.
The advantages of Laser lights are that they are about 1000 times more intense than LED lights and consume nearly half the energy required (30% more efficient). This leads to less lead formation on batteries and better life. The size of the laser light source is smaller than that of LEDs.
The disadvantages to be mentioned are that these are the most expensive of options, almost three times the price of xenon lights, and are not as precise as the LEDs. Laser headlights are not available as dual beams and generate a considerable amount of heat.
#7. Reflector headlights
Reflector headlights were the lighting standards until 1985. The design of reflector headlights involved a bowl-like casing that consisted of a reflective headlight and mirrors attached around the headlight to reflect the light.
These were called sealed beam headlights initially due to the lights having a fixed casing.
There was a lens in front of the headlight which determined the shape of the beam of light. Also, the bulb and lens were in a single housing and the whole housing was to be replaced in case of any damage.
Further improvements have led to the lens design being replaced by the reflective mirrored surface which guides the beam of light.
This advancement separated the single housing system and the bulb can be replaced individually in case of damage.
The Advantages of reflector headlights are that it takes up smaller space due to their compact size and has cheaper maintenance.
Disadvantages include non-compatibility to high output bulbs and low beam is often less distinct for the oncoming traffic. The beam of light produced is uneven with a lot of weak and intense spots.
#8. H4 Conversions
These are advanced forms of reflector headlights. Similar to modern reflectors, the bulb and housing assembly are separate in this type of light.
However, instead of a sealed case, H4 conversions use dual filament-type bulbs. These can adapt to HID and LED bulbs which is not the case with reflectors.
The bulbs can also be replaced in case of burnout and the entire assembly does not need to be replaced.
The advantages of these include an easy replacement and brighter illumination.
The drawbacks are that since these are reflector-type lights, the light produced is uneven with hot spotting, scattered, and can cause blinding of oncoming traffic.
#9. Projector Headlights
Projector lights are an advanced form of lights that were initially used in luxury cars only. Halogen and HID both have projector headlight versions.
The design of these headlights consists of a metal shield in front of the headlight that helps focus the light in a specific direction.
These also have mirrors, just like in the reflector headlights, to help reflect and increase the density of light. Moreover, it consists of a curved lens that works as a magnifying glass.
As a result, these have an increased brightness of the beam of light and provide better illumination.
The system also contains a cutoff shield, just in case to make sure that the angle of the light beam produced by projector headlights is correct and prevents the light from bleeding outside the intended radius.
The advantages of projector lights are that they are brighter than conventional reflector lights. The lens tilts the beam of light downwards onto the road so that it does not affect other vehicles or pedestrians on the road. The beam of light produced is a lot more even with no weak or intense spots.
The disadvantage of projector headlights is that they produce a different beam of light as compared to reflector headlights and it is difficult to adapt to the lighting.
#10. Quad Headlights
Quad headlights are commonly seen in modern cars and larger vehicles. It has wider housing and consists of two headlight bulbs per headlight. The two bulbs are for the high beam and low beam respectively.
As a result, these consist of two headlight connectors each and each connector has two wires connected to it.
The advantage of this high output system is that it provides stronger light than non-quad lights due to its dual working nature.
The drawbacks of the quad headlights are that they may result in high maintenance if the system fails. Also, a quad headlight cannot be switched to any non-quad type of light due to its unique dual wiring and it needs to be replaced with a quad headlight itself.
#11. Non-quad headlights
Non-quad lights are commonly seen in smaller cars. These consist of a smaller housing and a single headlight bulb inside the housing of each headlight.
The single headlight bulb works as the high beam and low beam. It consists of a single headlight bulb connector and has three wires connected to it.
The advantage of these headlights is that it requires a minimal amount of energy to work and maintenance is cheap.
The disadvantage is that it is not as bright as quad lights and as a result, does not provide clear visibility.
#12. Driving & Interior lamps
Driving and Interior lamps are located inside the car and these are used for the driver to locate the car parts inside and also help to view maps or directions.
We can also say the interior lamps include instrument panel lights, various warning indicator lights, and compartment lights. Other different types of keyhole lights, map lights, radio dial lights, and clock lights are also provided in some cars.
#13. Parking lights
As the name itself indicates Parking that means this light is being used when we are going to park the vehicle. This is low-intensity parking lights are usually provided in the front of the car.
The parking light helps to provide a signal for another object and therefore it avoids the accident.
#14. Direction-signal lights
This light helps in turning the vehicle. It gives signals to the vehicle coming from the front or rear. In addition, some special signal lights are also used.
#15. Blinker lights
Blinker light is also an important type of light and It is used when the car or other vehicle stop on the highway. This light is much more noticeable than any other steady light and provides a warning to other approaching vehicles or cars.
#16. Tail Light
The tail light helps at the night or you can say when the sunset. When the other vehicles coming from behind it are able to see it. The tail light is on all the time at night when the car is running.
#17. Brake Light
It is a very important type of light and is also known as a stop light. The brake light is located at the rear of the car and becomes on when brakes are applied.
When you press the brake light automatically gets on to give the signal to another vehicle behind it and thus it avoids the accident.
Aluminum: Introduction, Characteristics, Different Types, Application [Notes & PDF]
Aluminum is a silvery-gray metal, one of the most widespread metals on earth which makes up to 8 more than % of the Earth’s core mass.
It is the 13th element on the periodic table with the symbol Al and the third most commonly found metal on our planet after silicon and oxygen.
Also spelled Aluminium, pure aluminum does not occur in nature as it tends to bind with other metals easily. As a result, aluminum was produced for the first time as late as 1824.
The most commonly found form in nature is aluminum sulfates.
Aluminum has a lower density as compared to the other metals (one-third of steel). It forms a protective layer of oxide on its surface when exposed to the air, due to its greater affinity toward oxygen and also forms compounds primarily in the +3 oxidation state.
The strong affinity to oxygen leads to its common association with oxygen oxides, as a result, this is found mostly in the rocks in the crust rather than in the mantle.
Al3+ aluminum cation is highly charged and small. The boiling point is denoted around 2743 K and the melting point of aluminum is around 933.47 K.
The production of aluminum metal is associated primarily with bauxite ore which contains around 40% to 50% hydrated aluminum oxide mixed with silica and iron oxide.
Even though it is chemically similar to steel or copper, aluminum is a lightweight, strong, noncorrosive, flexible, and intently recyclable metal.
Steel is stronger than aluminum physically but this is preferred instead due to its low density and flexibility which is used for aircraft components, window frames, ships, and highrise buildings.
Aluminum is around 2.5 times denser than steel which makes it an alternative for requiring mobility and portability.
Aluminum alloys are generally highly ductile and malleable, hence they can be easily formed and machined.
Also good electrical and thermal conductors, non-sparking, and non-magnetic, aluminum materials have numerous applications in our lives.
It is highly recyclable, requiring low re-melting energy, which is only around 5% of the energy needed to produce the primary metal. 75% of the material is recovered for reuse without losing its desirable properties.
Characteristics of Aluminum:
The specific weight of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm^3, which is around a third of that of steel. This helps reduce the cost of manufacturing.
The use of aluminum in automobiles reduces dead weight and energy consumption while increasing the load capacity.
Moreover, the strength can be changed o adapt to the application by modifying the composition of the alloys.
Aluminum-manganese-magnesium is the preferred mix for durability with strength while aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy is preferred for automobile sheet metals.
#2. Corrosion Resistance:
A thin oxide coating is produced naturally by aluminum. It acts as a protective film that prevents the metal from making much contact with the environment.
This is useful for applications where it is exposed to corroding agents such as vehicles.
However, aluminum alloys are much more corrosion-resistant than pure aluminum (marine magnesium-aluminum alloys being an exception).
#3. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity:
According to its weight, Aluminum is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity, being twice as good a conductor as copper.
This has resulted in the first choice preference of aluminum for power transmission lines. Also, an excellent heat sink is used in appliances that require sudden and rapid heat drains.
Aluminum is an excellent reflector of visible light along with heat. Its low weight in addition makes it an excellent material to be used for reflectors, for example, light fittings or roof blankets.
Cool roofs made up of reduces the internal solar heat within the house, reflecting up to 95% sunlight.
It has a low melting point and density. This allows it to be processed in several ways into a molten state.
The ductility of aluminum ensures the fluidity of design if the product is maintained until the end. Sheets, foil, tubes, rods, and wires all consist of aluminum.
What are the different Types of Aluminum?
To modify its properties such as formability, corrosion resistance, and machinability, pure aluminum is often combined with different elements. However, the alloys need to be identified and thus needed grading for identification.
The aluminum association created a grading system for the identification of aluminum alloys and is responsible for maintaining the nomenclature of the standard grades.
It is graded according to the main alloying element along with its thermal and mechanical properties.
Aluminum alloys are classified mainly into two categories: Wrought and Cast aluminum. Both categories have differently assigned designation systems.
Wrought is manufactured by melting aluminum ingots along with a certain amount of the specific alloying element, which results in the composition of the grade. The aluminum alloy is then cast and the other mechanical processes until extrusion.
A four-digit number is used as a code to identify each grade:
The first digit refers to the primary alloying element mixed with pure aluminum. The primary alloying element has major effects on the properties of the grades in a series.
The second digit indicates the modification of a specific alloy. The modifications require specific documentation and are registered with the IADS. If the designated number on the second digit is zero, the alloy is original/unmodified.
The third and fourth digits are numbers assigned to a specific alloy in the series. For example, in the 1000 series, these digits indicate the purity of the alloy.
The table below describes the wrought aluminum series:
PRIMARY ALLOYING ELEMENT
Magnesium and silicon
The following explains the series of wrought grades:
The 1000 series contains at least 99.0% aluminum with no significant alloying element. This series consists of aluminum grades that have excellent corrosion resistance and high electrical and thermal conductivity.
These are highly formable and work hardens very slowly due to their ductility and relative softness. Hence for processes requiring severe deformation, they are preferred.
They are weldable but have a very narrow melting range. However, the mechanical strength in these grades is comparatively lower.
Aluminum 1100 is the most common grade in the 1000 series. It has the highest mechanical strength in the 1000 series and is also known as pure commercial aluminum. This grade is suitable for heat sinks and heat exchange equipment due to good electrical and thermal conductivity, respectively.
This grade also has excellent forming properties, thus making it suitable for cold working processes such as bending, roll forming, drawing, stamping, and spinning.
Its ductility can be used to form wires, plates, foils, bars, and stripes. Along with cold working, hot forming is easily performed using this grade.
Conventional welding methods, including resistance welding, can be used to weld this grade. However, high-pressure applications can be performed using this grade.
This grade cannot be hardened by heat treatment and is only hardened by coldworking, like most of the alloys in this series.
The 2000 series aluminum grades consist of around 0.7-6.8% of copper and smaller amounts of silicon, manganese, magnesium, and other elements.
Copper is the primary alloying element for these grades. It imparts additional strength and hardness which helps to improve their machinability. These grades can maintain high strength at a wide range of temperatures.
2000 series aluminum grades are suitable for aircraft and aerospace applications as these are high-performance and high-strength alloys. However, the addiction to copper decreases ductility and corrosion resistance.
Moreover, these are heat-treatable aluminum grades. Precipitation hardening is also performed to increase their strength. During the heat treatment, the precipitation of the intermetallic Al2Cu increases the hardness of the alloy.
However, these grades could be challenging to weld due to the intermetallic compounds. Some of the 2000 series grades are not suitable for arc welding as they are susceptible to hot cracking and stress corrosion cracking.
Aluminum 2011 is a free-machining alloy and has excellent machinability properties (i.e. can generate small chips and give a smoother surface finish), thus making it suitable for the high-speed lathing process.
Though this grade is a highly versatile alloy, it has poor corrosion resistance which needs to be coated or anodized. Moreover, these are not recommended for forming and welding.
Aluminum 2024 is ideal for heavy-duty applications under stress for a long period. It is one of the widely known high-strength aluminum alloys.
This alloy has features such as good fracture resistance, fracture toughness, and low fracture crack growth. However, it requires it to be mitigated by cladding or anodizing to improve its poor corrosion resistance.
3000 series aluminum grades consist of manganese as the main alloying element, which comprises around 0.05-1.5% of the alloy.
The presence of Manganese gives the alloy greater mechanical strength than pure aluminum and it is maintained at a wide range of temperatures.
Characteristics include good corrosion resistance, high ductility along with formability. These are non-heat-treatable and are suitable for welding. Hardening can be obtained by a cold working process.
Aluminum 3003 contains 1.5% manganese and 0.1% copper, being the most widely used aluminum grade. This grade has the exact mechanical properties of Aluminum 1100 along with 20% higher tensile strength. This grade can be brazed, deep drawn, spun, and welded.
4000 series aluminum grades consist of 3.6-13.5% silicon as the primary alloying element, along with small amounts of copper and magnesium.
Silicon lowers the alloy’s melting point and helps in improving fluidity during the molten state. The 4000 series grades are a suitable option as a good filler material for welding and brazing.
Heat treatability of some grades under the 4000 series is dependent on the amounts of copper and magnesium in the alloy.
The addition of such elements gives a favorable response to heat treatment. The heat-treated grades can be preferred for welding.
5000 series aluminum grades contain 0.5-5.5% magnesium as the main alloying element. The grades in the series cannot be heat-treated and can be hardened by cold working.
They have high ductility in annealed conditions and moderate strength. These can be welded easily and have high corrosion resistance.
Moreover, these are excellent alkaline resistant. Some grades in this series contain 3.5% magnesium which is not suitable for high-temperature applications, as they are prone to stress corrosion.
Aluminum 5005 is generally used in sheet metal work. Features include good formability and are easy to bend, spin, draw, stamp, and roll form. These can withstand marine environments and are corrosion-resistant.
Aluminum 5083 contains some amounts of manganese and chromium. It can provide resistance to most industrial chemicals and seawater. It can retain its high strength after the welding process.
Aluminum 5052 offers better resistance to marine environments compared to other aluminum grades. It exhibits good finishing qualities and can be drawn and formed into intricate shapes due to its excellent workability. It has the highest strength among the non-heat-treatable aluminum grades.
6000 series aluminum grades consist of silicon and magnesium as the major alloying elements. The presence of silicon and magnesium in the alloy is around 0.2-1.8% and 0.35-1.5%, respectively.
To increase their yield strength, these grades can be heat-treated. The presence of high silicon content promotes precipitation hardening, which can result in reduced ductility.
However, this effect can be reversed with the addition of chromium and manganese, which can depress recrystallization. It is difficult to weld these grades because of their sensitivity to solidification cracking, thus proper welding techniques should be applied.
Aluminum 6061 is the most versatile among the heat-treatable aluminum alloys. It is also known as the “work-horse” alloy. Its characteristics include excellent formability and corrosion resistance (using bending, deep drawing, and stamping). These are suitable for welding and can be welded using any method.
Aluminum 6063 is an alloy commonly used for aluminum extrusion. It has high tensile strength and corrosion resistance along with excellent finishing qualities. It can produce smooth surfaces after forming intricate shapes, hence making it suitable for anodizing. Other characteristics include good weldability and average machinability.
Aluminum 6262 is a free-machining alloy. These have excellent mechanical strength and good corrosion resistance.
7000 series aluminum grades consist of 0.8-8.2% zinc as the main alloying element. Alloys with the highest strength are present in this series. These are heat-treatable grades that need to be followed by aging to increase their yield strength.
The presence of zinc leads to the precipitation of MgZn2 and Mg3Zn3Al2t, as a result, the intermetallic compounds harden the alloy.
Characteristics include high corrosion resistance, which can be enhanced by the addition of copper. The grades in this series have poor weldability as these are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking and hot cracking.
Aluminum 7075 has among the highest strengths among the aluminum grades. It is a high-performance alloy, with a higher tensile strength than Aluminum 6061. This alloy is harder and can withstand prolonged periods of stress. It is weldable using spot or fuse methods.
As the name suggests, cast aluminum is produced by a casting process involving pouring molten aluminum together with specific amounts of the alloying elements.
It is then molded to form the desired shape of the alloy. Cast aluminum alloys generally have lower tensile strength as compared to wrought aluminum. They are susceptible to cracking and shrinkage.
However, they are more cost-effective. Molten aluminum can flexibly take the shape of the mold cavities, as a result, these alloys can be molded into a wide range of shapes.
A four-digit code which also includes a decimal value is assigned to identify each cast aluminum grade:
The first digit is assigned to indicate the primary alloying element in the alloy
The second and third digits are arbitrary numbers, except for the 1XX.X series. These digits in the 1XX.X series indicate the purity of the pure aluminum alloy.
The last digit indicates whether the alloy is a cast or an ingot. These are represented by (“.0”) and (“.1” or “.2”).
The table below describes the cast aluminum alloy series:
Primary alloying element
Silicon with added copper or magnesium
1XX.X series has the maximum amount of pure aluminum (99.00% minimum). These aluminum grades have high electrical and thermal conductivity, good reliability along with excellent corrosion resistance and finishing properties.
The 2XX.X series consists of copper as the primary alloying element. These aluminum grades are heat-treatable. Characteristics include high strength and low fluidity.
These also have low corrosion resistance and ductility. Moreover, these are susceptible to hot cracking.
The 3XX.X series contain silicon as the primary alloying element along with small amounts of magnesium and/or copper. These aluminum grades are heat-treatable.
Significant characteristics include high strength and good wear and cracking resistance. The increased amount of copper helps the grade be less resistant to corrosion. However, the ductility is comparatively low.
4XX.X series aluminum grades consist of silicon as the main alloying element. These have moderate strength.
These are non-heat treatable and also have good machinability due to their high ductility. Significant characteristics include good impact resistance, corrosion resistance along with casting properties.
5XX.X series aluminum grades consist of magnesium as the primary alloying element. The presence of magnesium makes these corrosion-resistant.
However, these are non-heat-treatable. Significant characteristics include good corrosion resistance and a very attractive appearance when anodized. The strength is moderate-to-high but these are machineable and have excellent casting properties.
7XX.X series aluminum grades contain zinc as the primary alloying element. These are heat-treatable grades.
Significant characteristics include high strength, good corrosion resistance, good dimensional stability, and good finishing qualities. However, the casting properties of this alloy are poor.
8XX.X series aluminum grades contain tin as the primary alloying element. These are non-heat-treatable alloys.
Characteristics are good machinability and wear resistance due to their low coefficient of friction. However, mechanical strength is comparatively low.
The series 6XX.X is not used in these standards.
Temper Designation of Aluminum Alloys
The temper designation system is designed to designate the response of a certain alloy to welding and other fabrication processes.
It is related to the strengthening and hardening processes the alloys have undergone. This destination system is used by both wrought and cast aluminum alloys.
The temper designation system of an aluminum alloy comprises a capital letter which is followed by a two-digit number for strain-hardened and thermally treated alloys.
It is separated from the alloy numbering designation by using a hyphen (e.g., 5052-H32).
The first character in temper designation is used to indicate the main treatment that the alloy has undergone.
As fabricated alloys, no treatment was performed
Strain-hardened or cold-worked
The first and second digits are used to indicate the operation after strain hardening and the degree of strain hardening respectively (for strain-hardened alloys).
The first digit indicates the thermal treatment condition for thermally treated alloys.
What are the use or Applications of Aluminum?
Wrought aluminum grades:
Aluminum 1100 is used in rivets, deep-drawn parts (e.g., pots, kitchen sinks), railroad tank cars, and reflectors. They are used in stocks, heat exchangers, and heat sinks due to their high thermal conductivity. Moreover, this grade is suitable for electrical applications.
Aluminum 2011 is used for manufacturing machine and automotive parts, fasteners, weapons, munitions, pipe and tube fittings, and atomizer parts. It is also applied to make screw machine products.
Aluminum 2024 is the most suitable aluminum grade for aircraft and aerospace applications. It is also extensively used in marine equipment, wing tension members, bolts, hydraulic valve parts, shafts, couplings, nuts, gears, and pistons.
Aluminum 3003 is used in the production of heat exchangers, pressure vessels, storage tanks, and fuel tanks. It can also be utilized in food-handling instruments such as cooking utensils, pots, ice cube traps, pans, and refrigerator panels. It is also employed in manufacturing construction products such as roofs, sidings, garage doors, insulation panels, gutters, and downspouts.
Aluminum 5005 makes an excellent construction material and is used in sidings, roofing, and furniture and as an electric conductor. Moreover, It is also utilized in chemical and food handling equipment, HVAC equipment, vessels, tanks, and high-strength foils. Due to its bright surface, it is helpful in decorative applications.
Aluminum 5083 is used in rail cars, pressure vessels, drilling rigs, shipbuilding, and vehicles.
Aluminum 5052 is used in ductile applications such as food processing equipment, cooking utensils, heat exchangers, and chemical storage tanks. Its application also includes truck panels, flooring panels, rivets, wires, treadplates, and containers.
Aluminum 6061 can be shaped into tubes, beams, and angles with rounded corners. They are used in tank fittings, trucks, railroad cars, marine components, pipelines, and furniture.
Aluminum 6063 is extensively used in architectural applications such as stair rails, furniture, window frames, doors, and sign frames. They can also be shaped into tubes, angles, beams, and channels.
Aluminum 6262 is used in screw machine products, hinge pins, marine fittings, pipeline fittings, knobs, nuts, couplings, valves, and decorative hardware.
Aluminum 7075 is preferably employed in aerospace and aircraft applications due to its high strength. It can also be used in producing engine parts, molds, competitive sporting equipment, and industrial tooling.
What are the different forms of Aluminum?
Aluminum wires are produced by processing the aluminum ingots through a die that compresses the diameter of the ingot while increasing its length.
Aluminum has good electrical conductivity and a high strength-to-weight ratio, therefore they are used as an alternative to copper in electrical applications. However, aluminum wires used in this application can be oxidized easily.
If the measures to prevent the oxidation of wires are not taken, it can result in the deterioration of the electrical wiring and a potential fire hazard.
Aluminum foils are manufactured using aluminum sheets. It undergoes a flattening process using a roll mill which reduces the thickness of aluminum sheets.
The range of thickness of aluminum foils is 0.2 mm to 6 microns. These are malleable, pliable, and can be easily bent and wrapped around objects.
They are also utilized as a packaging and electromagnetic shielding material along with other industrial applications.
Aluminum sheets are produced by applying high-pressure rolling operation on aluminum slabs several times until they are thinner and flatter. The aluminum sheets have a thickness of under 0.249 inches.
These are the most extensively used form of aluminum products. The application of aluminum sheets is to manufacture cans, packaging materials, truck, and automotive parts, cookware, and construction parts such as roofing, siding, and gutters.
Aluminum plates are manufactured just like aluminum sheets, the only difference is that the thickness is above 0.250 inches.
As a result, they are more often used in heavy-duty applications. Applications of aluminum plates are in transportation, aerospace, aircraft, marine, and military industries. They are also utilized to manufacture storage tanks and fuel tanks.
#5. Bars, Tubes, and Pipes
Aluminum bars, tubes, and pipes are extremely important components manufactured using Aluminum. These are produced by an extrusion process, in which an aluminum billet is passed through the opening of a die by compressive force.
The die transforms the shape of the billet as it passes through.
The extrusion process is flexible and can produce a variety of parts with different cross-sectional shapes. The shapes produced can be round, rectangular, square, and hexagonal bars, as well as hollow tubes and pipes.
Moreover, it can be used to create parts with complex shapes and constant cross-sectional area. Aluminum bars, tubes, and pipes are used extensively in industries such as structural, aircraft, automotive, marine transportation, aerospace, and HVAC equipment components.
The Chassis is the frame or structure of the vehicle on which all the parts of the vehicle are mounted. It is the basic structure of the vehicle without the body. The chassis provides rigidity to the vehicle structure.
The chassis of an automobile consists of the frame, suspension system, axles, and wheel as the main components.
The frame can be in the form of a conventional chassis or unit construction may be adopted.
In the case of a conventional chassis frame, the frame forms the main skeleton of the vehicle. It supports the engine, power transmission, and body of the vehicle.
The frame is supported on axles through springs. It carries the weight of the vehicle and passengers and withstands engine, transmission, accelerating, and braking torques.
In the case of unit construction type, there is no frame and the structure of the body of the automobile is first formed, then different components such as the engine, transmission system, and other parts are placed at suitable places in the body of the vehicle.
The other parts of the chassis include the suspension system, axles, and wheel.
The suspension system absorbs the vibrations caused due to the up and down movement of wheels. This function is performed using the springs and shock absorbers connecting the frame and the axle.
The springs can either be leaf springs, coil springs, or torsion bars. Rubber or air are also considered to form the material of springs.
‘Live’ and ‘Dead’ axle are terms used when power from the engine is transmitted and when no power is supplied to it respectively.
The axle also resists the stresses due to braking and driving torque, in addition to providing support to the weight of the vehicle.
The engine of car is the source of power for an automobile. It is a very crucial part of an automobile because in the absence of an engine, the automobile may not move at all, and its basic function of transporting passengers or goods would not be possible.
The power produced by the engine determines the working of the automobile.
In the same manner, the efficiency of the engine plays a major role in the efficiency of an automobile.
The engine mostly is an internal combustion engine. This can be a spark-ignition engine consuming petrol as fuel or it could be a compression ignition engine using diesel as fuel. The engines used are multi-cylinder engines.
A single-cylinder engine is capable of providing the desired power but may become very heavy and therefore may be unsuitable. In the case of a multi-cylinder engine, with each cylinder handling a smaller amount of power, it keeps the engine light in weight.
In an IC engine, the total heat produced by the burning of fuel is not converted into work. This is because a part of it causes overall heating of the engine which is undesirable. This heat needs to be dissipated properly. Coolant in the form of air or water is used to take away the heat.
An engine can be air-cooled or water-cooled. Technology has led to some chemicals being developed which have cooling properties, and these remain unaffected for a longer period.
These chemicals are used as coolants, these do not require frequent maintenance.
Apart from their long life, these are more efficient as well.
Similarly, lubrication is another aspect of an engine requiring periodic attention from the user. The moving parts in an engine require regular lubrication to reduce unwanted friction.
The properties of lubricants are now highly developed. There is a standard rating for it and for every purpose a specific lubricant is available.
Apart from internal combustion engines, an electric motor is also used as a power source in some vehicles. These are known as electric vehicles and they use electricity instead of fuel to run the motor and power the automobile.
In a car the transmission system transmits the power developed by the engine to the wheels. The power available as output from the engine is in the form of rotation of the crankshaft and flywheel.
This movement is transferred to the wheels to cause rotary motion and makes possible the movement of the vehicle.
The transmission system consists of various parts such as a clutch, gearbox, propeller shaft, differential, and axle. The wheels are at the ends of the axle.
The motion is transmitted through these parts and every part of the transmission system performs its function.
The clutch is a part of the transmission system next to the crankshaft. Its function is to enable the rotary motion of one shaft transmitted to the second shaft.
The gearbox is the component of the transmission system connected to the clutch. It consists of a gear train, and it provides different gear ratios. These ratios determine the speed of the output shaft from the gearbox.
The term gearbox ratio can be explained using the cycle gearbox for example. The 1st gear has a smaller rotation gear and a bigger rotating gear. It also has a higher amount of torque.
As a result, one full rotation of the smaller head is not enough for the bigger to rotate. If the smaller gear needs five full rotations to complete a full rotation of the bigger gear, the ratio is 1:5.
The gear ratio increases with the increase in gear and as a result, the vehicle moves freely in the 4th and 5th gears.
The differential is the component of the transmission system linked to the propeller shaft. The motion of the propeller shaft is fed to the differential which turns it through 90 degrees. This is essential as the axle is at 90 degrees i.e. perpendicular to the propeller shaft.
The axle is the component of the transmission system which is attached to the differential and receives the power from the engine.
The body part of car use of a separate frame to which the body structure is attached is obsolete except for some applications for heavy-duty commercial vehicles.
Most heavy-duty vehicles now use ‘sub-frames’ of simple construction to which the engine and gearbox are attached.
The sub-frame gets support from the mainframe and is fixed on it through some suitable rubber connections which isolate the engine vibrations.
All the assembly units of the vehicles are attached to the body which also acts as the frame, this is due to development in spot welding and sheet pressing techniques.
This makes the vehicle compact, and lightweight and the cost is also reduced.
A steering system is used to turn the wheels of the vehicle and change the direction of the vehicle of the car. Steering systems have evolved from the recirculating ball to rack and pinion to power steering system now.
While the recirculating ball had a circular gear to change the direction, the rack and pinion used two sets of gears perpendicular to each other to enact an easy and smooth change of direction of the wheels.
Power steering systems use highly pressurized fluid in the tube of rack and pinion for pressurized movement of the gears which reduces the effort required by the driver by using either electric or hydraulic assistance.
It consists of a motor that is run on the battery, to supply the high-pressure fluid into the tube.
The fluid used is a lubricant known as a power steering fluid. It requires timely maintenance to keep the components away from premature wear.
The braking system is an essential aspect of an automobile since the speed of the wheels needs to be controlled or completely stopped at some point.
Almost every modern car has a hydraulic braking system. Major components include the brake pedal, master cylinder, caliper, brake drum, braking pipe, brake shoes, and linkages.
The application of the master cylinder is to supply high-pressure braking fluid through the braking pipes to the drums for efficient braking.
Conventional braking systems consisted of the traditional brake pad fitted on a brake caliper and the drum for resistance.
Developments invented the use of disc brakes instead of the conventional drum for better braking force and reduced heating of the brake pads.
Brake discs are usually made up of grey cast iron, but in some instances are produced from composites such as reinforced carbon or ceramic matrix composites.
Another invention led to the development of an anti-lock braking system (ABS) since sudden braking force led to uneven locking of the wheels causing immense load on the passengers.
An anti-lock braking system causes the wheels to not lock and steadily slows the vehicle down when the brakes are applied.
Electronic brake distribution is another new technology, which distributes the brake force equally on all the wheels.
This technology uses a central electronic control unit (ECU) which calculates the brake force and distributes it evenly among the wheels for less wear and tear of the wheels and also for better grip of the wheels on the road surface.
It is the electrical system that is responsible for the supply of energy to operate and power the motor and all the accessories. This system works continuously in a unison with major components such as the battery, alternator, starting motor, heater, and ignition coil.
The car battery is also an essential component of car function as it provides the electricity needed for all the electrical components to work.
It is a rechargeable battery to start the electric starting motor or ignition system which in turn starts the engine.
The battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy to power the car. It powers the starter, headlights, stereo system, and other electrical accessories.
It keeps the electric current steady in the circuit by stabilizing the voltage.
An alternator is a device responsible for charging the battery of the car while the car is being driven.
It also provides energy to most of the electrical components in the car such as headlights, power steering systems, power windows, windshield wipers, radio, and dashboard instruments.
The alternator generates direct current (DC) and supplies it to the components.
The working principle is based on converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. It consists of a pulley that is attached to the alternator.
The pulley is driven by a Serpentine belt, which is powered by the mechanical force generated by the crankshaft pulley. Further explanation of the belt and other tensions are explained below.
It can be described as a coil consisting of magnets and is driven by the engine’s driving belt system. The magnets when driven spin and generate alternating current (AC) around the coil.
This current is supplied into the alternator’s rectifier and converted into DC power.
Alternative pulleys are commonly available in two types namely, stamped steel and cast aluminum.
The alternator pulley is an important component as far as electrical systems are concerned but does not affect the functioning of the engine.
A worn-out overrunning pulley can cause the belt to slip and create a short chirp noise.
The serpentine belt is a long rubber belt that connects and drives multiple devices – the alternator, power steering pump, AC compressor, water pump, and radiator fan. It is also known as the fan belt or drive belt.
Earlier, vehicles used to have multiple belts for purposes but modern vehicles consist of a single belt to power all devices.
It is very important in modern cars due to its connection to several systems and causes such as A/C, dead battery, engine overheating, loss of power steering, and damage to engine accessories.
It is different from the timing belt and has multiple V-shaped grooves running vertically along the belt.
Internal combustion engines operate at very high temperatures and need to be operated at an efficient temperature for better performance and life of car engine parts.
The temperature increase is due to the combustion of fuel with air inside the cylinder. The cooling system is designed such that the engine neither overheats nor overcooks.
The cooling system comprises parts such as a radiator, cooling fan, coolant, and a thermostat that monitors the temperature of the coolant.
The radiator is an important part of the car engine’s cooling system and helps to drain out the excess heat from the engine. The liquid coolant passes through the hoses and engine to absorb the excess heat and moves back into the radiator.
The hoses are like a piping system located over the engine for heat transfer. The passing of coolant over the engine releases the excess heat in the form of vapor and the hot coolant mixes again in the radiator.
The hot air is released into the atmosphere with the help of the coolant fan, a group of thin metal fins.
The radiator is cooled with the help of cool air passed in through the car’s front grille and in idle conditions, the fan blows air to help reduce the coolant temperature.
A water pump located close to the cylinder head is used to pump the coolant water to parts of the engine. Moreover, a core plug is used to avoid leakage of the coolant.
Moving parts develop wear eventually as they move along each other. An engine has several moving parts and it is essential to prevent wear due to the metal-to-metal contact.
A lubricant is circulated between these moving parts so that the parts move over each other with minimal friction. This helps in reducing the power loss due to friction.
Oil passages and galleries pave the way for the flow of lubricants to moving parts of the engine. The lubricants also act as a coolant themselves.
These are highly viscous fuels that are suited to work at high temperatures and pressure. It is also a sealing medium inside the engine and helps to prevent leakages.
The ignition system is responsible for self-starting the vehicle using the either combustion of an air-fuel mixture or a high voltage spark.
The system which uses a high voltage spark is called the Spark Ignition system (SI) and combustion of the air-fuel mixture is used in the Compression Ignition system (CI).
The SI system uses a separate spark plug for ignition purposes and the CI system requires only the compression of the mixture to high pressure.
The powertrain in a car is everything involved for the car to work from well to wheel (fuel tank to propulsion).
In other words, it is the propulsion system of the car. It creates and delivers the power to the wheels on the ground for the car to move.
The powertrain consists of the clutch, transmission system, propeller shaft, differential, and axles.
A clutch is also an important parts of car which is inside the transmission system used to isolate the transmission from the engine crankshaft. Since the car engine is constantly running, the crankshaft never stops rotating.
This can hinder the gear-changing process due to friction. As a result, a clutch is used as a connector between the transmission and the engine.
It is used to disconnect the transfer of power from the engine to the transmission and facilitate the change of gears.
Even though clutches are present in both manual and automatic transmission, the way of application is entirely different.
In a manual transmission, the clutch is detached using the force developed by the clutch pedal on the splint sleeves.
Whereas in an automatic transmission, a torque converter is used to avail automatic change of gears, and clutches are detached due to the hydraulic pressure developed inside.
The transmission system creates the power according to the torque provided. The power is transferred to the wheels using the propeller shaft. It is also called a driveshaft.
Made up of high-quality steel, these have universal joints at both ends.
The concept of Rear Wheel Drive (RWD), Front Wheel Drive (FWD), and All Wheel Drive (AWD) are based on the propeller shaft and differential.
RWD has a propeller shaft connected to the rear axle, FWD has a propeller shaft to the front axle and AWD has a propeller shaft to both axles.
The power transmitted from the transmission is transferred in the form of rotational force via the propeller shaft.
The differential splits the power transmitted from the propeller shaft to the axle. A differential feeds equal power to both wheels at a smooth surface.
It is also responsible for providing the required amount of power to a particular side when one side is under more load.
Moreover, a differential is also related to RWD, FWD, and AWD. These have a differential at the rear axle, front axle, and both axles respectively.
It is nothing but shafts that are used to mount the wheels and are of two types namely, Front Axle and Rear Axle.
The front axle is located at the front end and it’s connected to the front suspension. Front axles are associated with the steering system and are responsible to pivot when making turns.
Rear Axle consists of a simple suspension structure and is not related to steering. The axle which has a differential connection is called the driving axle and is differentiated as FWD, RWD, and AWD as mentioned above.
The driving axle is a split axle consisting of two halves connected by the differential in the middle. Each half is known as a half shaft and connects to the wheels through a constant velocity (CV) joint.
In a car the gear shift is generally a shifter or stick, technically known as the transmission lever.
It is a metal lever used as an input device of the transmission system. In simpler words, a Gear Shift is used to engage and disengage the gears for the movement of the vehicle.
While in manual transmission, the term gear shift is used referring to the shift lever for change of gears according to torque using the clutch pedal; automatic transmission (torque converters and clutch-less manuals) has a similar lever known as a gear selector which has only forward, reverse and neutral positions.
As the name suggests, the timing belt is used to keep the crankshaft and camshaft in sync. It is located inside the engine and its function is to ensure that the engine intake and exhaust valves open and close simultaneously in time with the pistons.
This consists of a horizontal teeth setup assembled to turn the camshaft in time with the crankshaft.
It is a very important component of an engine, as it ensures the valves close in time to avoid contact with the position and also avoids the mixing of particles in the intake and exhaust valves.
Modern cars use timing chains instead of a belt for better durability.
The main function of the suspension system in a car is to minimize the effect of irregularities of the road surfaces on the vehicle. The suspension system is responsible for this function.
It absorbs the vibrations caused due to the vertical motion of the wheels with the help of the springs, connecting linkages, and a shock absorber which compromises the suspension system.
Suspension systems of a car are generally of two types namely, Rigid systems and Independent systems.
Rigid systems are usually employed on both axles of heavy vehicles and only on the rear axles of light vehicles. An Independent system, on the other hand, is employed on the front axle of light vehicles. A rigid system comprises road springs connected to rigid beam axles and these springs change positions together. As a result, if one rear wheel undergoes an irregularity the other wheel is also affected.
An Independent system does not have a rigid axle. As a result, if one wheel undergoes irregularity the other wheel maintains its position. This is why an independent system is preferred on the front axle of light vehicles, for better stability and comfort on any surface condition.
The suspension system on the vehicles undergoes wear when impacted frequently due to uneven road surfaces. The spring in the suspension system needs to be brought into its original position after deformation for efficient functioning.
The role of a shock absorber is to minimize the effect of the impact on the vehicle and adjust the spring into its original position after deformation with the help of a hydraulic pump consisting of highly viscous oil.
This uses hydraulic pressure created by the pump to load and reload the springs when required. Along with smoothing the bumps on road, it also ensures the wheel remains attached to the axle.
A system that uses controlled processes to guide the reacted gases away from the combustion chamber is called Exhaust System.
The exhaust system is responsible for reducing noise, carrying away exhaust gases, and improving engine performance and fuel consumption.
This system consists of several parts that work in unison. Different components of the exhaust system are the O2 sensor, catalytic converter, exhaust manifold, resonator, and muffler.
Known as the Oxygen Sensor, it is responsible to calculate the oxygen content in the exhaust. It is positioned just in front of the catalytic converter, connected to the exhaust valve.
The oxygen content is sensed and informed to the car’s electronic control unit (ECU). The excess oxygen found in the exhaust is recycled into the engine and improves the engine’s air-fuel ratio.
This detection helps the engine to supply enough oxygen to the catalytic converter and use the excess oxygen for engine efficiency.
The catalytic converter is used to convert the toxic gases in the exhaust into CO2 and Nitrogen, which are less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (reduction-oxidation).
Catalytic Converters are of two types namely, Two-way and Three-way.
The two-way system is used in diesel engines and the three-way system is used in petrol engines. Converters in diesel engines target particles known as soluble organic fractions. It converts hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water.
A Three-way system performs the same function as that of a two-way one but with the addition of a reduction catalyst. It reduces nitrogen oxides into nitrogen and oxygen gases.
IC engines produce loud noise due to the combination process. To control the engine noise, a resonator is used.
It is employed specifically to tackle the engine rpm and is positioned just after the catalytic converter and in front of the muffler.
Resonator is a chamber that is used to modulate and change the sound in such a way that it is further muted by the muffler. Resonators are used to make the job easier for mufflers.
Resonators help decrease the sound and Mufflers decrease the volume. These work as dampers to the sound released due to the powerful exhaust strokes.
Mufflers are made up of steel and coated with aluminum to protect them from the heat and chemicals released during the process.
Located at the end of the muffler is the exhaust manifold. It releases the exhaust air from the vehicle into the air. These are attached to the rear of the vehicle with the help of a bracket.
Electronic Control Unit:
The abbreviation of the Electronic control module is ECU. As the name suggests, an ECU is a device that controls and connects various electronic configurations or modules in a vehicle.
The working of an ECU is based on numbers and parameters installed in its memory. The sensors around the vehicle feed the ECU with data and it works by making changes according to the input data.
For example, the crash sensors detect the velocity of the crash and feed the data to the ECU. The ECU compares the data in its memory to launch the airbags. If it detects the velocity to be greater than the safety standards set, it employs the airbags.
A vehicle may have multiple ECUs each having different tasks to perform. Some of the modules are the Engine Control Module which works on fuel injection and ignition timing, the Brake Control Module used for the functioning of ABS, Transmission Control Module used for smooth gear shifts on an automatic transmission.
Almost every modern vehicle has an ECU in it, without which some cars may not even start.
The engine requires to mix up with fuel for the combustion process. So, it is necessary to clean the air before it is passed on to the cylinders to prevent dust, dirt, grit, and other debris from entering the cylinders.
If these contaminants enter the engine cylinders, they can lead to damage to the interior parts.
Air filter ensures that only clean air enters the cylinders and hence improves engine performance and efficiency. This also plays a role in extended engine life.
An airbag is a bag designed to inflate quickly and provide cushioning to the occupants of the vehicle upon impact.
It protects the passengers from hitting interior parts of the vehicle or from throwing the passenger out of the seat due to impact.
These absorb the force developed due to the impact and provide a softening effect on the passenger’s upper body.
Since it needs to be deployed quickly, the bags are filled with a chemical called sodium azide.
When the sensor detects sudden deceleration or collision, it sends the data to the ECU and thereby sends an electric signal to an ignitor. The ignitor produces heat causing the sodium azide to decompose into sodium metal and nitrogen gas.
Airbags are usually provided in front of the passenger, I.e on the dashboard for front passengers.
Some cars have side airbags and knee airbags as well. These are located in the door panel on both sides for impact protection on the sides and the lower end of the dashboard for protecting the knee respectively.
A seat belt is a safety device, a belt that is designed to secure an occupant of the vehicle against unwanted movements that may be caused during a collision.
It helps to keep the occupants positioned safely and prevents the passenger from being thrown away from the vehicle on impact.
It is very essential as far as the occupants at the front are concerned, as there is a chance of contact with the windshield upon impact.
Seat Belt also increases the effectiveness of the airbags, if employed, and are considered Primary Restraint Systems (PRS). It consists of parts such as webbing, retractors, buckles, and pillar loops.
The Headlight in a vehicle is a device used to produce a beam of light illuminating the road ahead. These mostly consist of a headlamp, mirrors, and housing to cover the lamps.
Headlights have evolved over the years and modern vehicles have various types of headlights. Halogen, LED, HID, Laser, Projector, and Matrix are the types of headlights in modern cars. Halogen is yellowish whereas LED is white.
Headlights provide clear illumination of the road ahead and facilitate a fatigue-free drive for the driver. It also helps to decrease the number of accidents.
Tail lights are located at the rear of the car. It is mounted above the bumper and is red.
Tail lights are used to make the cars behind aware of your presence on the road to avail safe travel in the dark. The Tail light set also includes a white light besides, which is the reverse light.
The reverse light is used to indicate when the vehicle is moving in the reverse direction and it is started when the gearshift is moved on to reverse.
Indicator lights are direction indicator lamps or turn signals, also known as blinkers. These are blinking lamps mounted along with the headlights and tail lights.
Activated by the driver using the forks present at the back of the steering wheel, these are also present on the sides or side mirrors of some vehicles.
It is used to indicate a change of direction of the vehicle to other vehicles on the road, before making the turn.
The screen or glass shield at the front end of the vehicle is called a windshield or windscreen. It is used to protect the occupants inside and visibility to the driver.
These are laminated safety glasses, a special type of treated glass that consists of two curved sheets of glass with a layer of plastic laminated between them for adhesion and attached to the window frame.
It’s responsible for protecting the vehicle’s occupants from wind and debris such as dust, dirt, and insects. It also helps with the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle.
Some modern cars also have a UV-coated windshield to protect them from the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
A windshield wiper is a cleaning device used to clear the windshield from rainwater, washing fluid, snow, or debris for a clear and visible windscreen.
Also called car wipers, it is a legal safety requirement for every car to have a wiper. It consists of a metal arm that is powered by an electric motor.
One end of the arm pivots and the other end has a long rubber blade attached to it. The blade swings back and forth over the glass and pushes the contaminants from the glass surface.
It is activated by the driver using the forks attached to the steering wheel, opposite the indicator fork. Modern cars have speed-adjustable Wipers with several velocities which can be adjusted using the fork.
Most modern cars have sensors that detect and alarm the driver if the vehicle gets too close to an object or a vehicle. These are mostly mounted on rear bumpers for reverse assistance.
Although few cars have these mounted on the front bumper for forwarding clearance assistance. These sensors are generally of two types namely, Ultrasonic and Electromagnetic.
Ultrasonic sensors use high-frequency straight sound waves to detect objects. The sound pulses are reflected off the nearby object and received by the receiver. The distance from the vehicle to the object is calculated and the alarm sound increases with decreasing distance.
Electromagnetic sensors use electromagnetic frequencies instead of ultrasonic waves. These are mounted inside the bumper as opposed to Ultrasonic and often come with a camera installed together.
A car hood also known as a bonnet is a metal cover that is hinged and rested on the front of the vehicle. It is used to cover the engine of the car in front-engine vehicles.
It is hinged to provide easy access to the engine for repair and maintenance. A latch located inside is used to put up a lock and hold down the bonnet. These are generally made up of steel and in rare cases, aluminum is used.
Modern cars have been producing stronger bonnets and front grilles, which can distribute the force equally upon impact and decrease the effect on the occupants.
As a result, different designs and styles have originated with time. To open the trunk, a trunk open button is present inside the driver’s cabin.
A car trunk refers to the space at the rear end of the vehicle used as a primary storage area. It is also known as boot. It is held on by a latch or modern cars even have a hydraulic system attached to the latch.
Some cars also have an automated boot open and lose a button. Generally, sedans and SUVs have a greater amount of boot space as compared to hatchbacks.
Also, the boot open and close button is present inside the driver’s cabin or some cars have to be manually opened like a door using the key.
Wheel / Tyre:
Every axle has two ends that are attached to wheels or rims. These wheels are rotated by the driving axle when power is produced in the powertrain.
The wheels are wrapped around by round-shaped layers of synthetic rubber. This is called a tire and it’s black.
Since rubber is white in nature, a dye or a chemical compound called carbon black is used to convert it into black color.
The black color is preferred as it carries away heat and tires do not melt due to the friction generating heat. This increases the durability and stability of the tire.
Moreover, the tires have treads along the rotating axis to reduce the heat and have a better grip on the road.
The rims or the wheels have evolved over the wear in terms of shape and appearance.
It has come a long way from cycle-like rims attached to the central axle by spokes to diamond-cut alloy wheels which have a crystal-like appearance.
These are generally made up of aluminum and magnesium.
A fuel tank is a part of the engine system which is used to store flammable fluids and release them into an engine. It is generally located under the middle section of the car.
The tank is refilled using a small fuel tank cap located on the outside of the body of the car. The fuel cap prevents the entry of contaminants into the fuel tank.
The contaminants can cause the clothing of the fuel filter, fuel lines, fuel investors, and the fuel pump.
The fuel filter is used inside to further filter the fuel to avoid any small particles of dust and the fuel pump is used to pump the fuel into the injectors through the fuel lines.
Fuel lines and fuel caps are made up of steel, aluminum, and brass.
A fuel gauge is a measurement device used to indicate the fuel level present inside the fuel tank of the vehicle. It has a scaling unit present inside the fuel tank to detect the amount of fuel and sends the data to the gauge or indicator.
A speedometer is a speed indication device used in vehicles to indicate speed. It is usually combined with a device called an odometer that records the distance traveled.
A speedometer works on the principle of interruption of the magnetic field of the coil, which detects and sends data to the car’s ECU.
The ECU uses the data to compute the speed of the vehicle and the distance covered and the revolution speed of the engine (RPM).
The speed is then displayed on the speedometer. Modern cars generally have two types of speedometer namely, analog dial and digital display.
Engines work under high-temperature ranges and need to be cooled constantly for safety purposes. A gauge is designed to measure the temperature of the engine’s coolant.
It has a sensor, located in the thermostat housing to sense the temperature of the coolant and send an electric signal to the car’s ECU.
The data has a specific coolant temperature, giving an accurate reading of the coolant temperature and hence the gauge is accurate.
The normal working temperature of the coolant may vary from car to car depending upon the engine type and size.
Modern cars have an engine light and overheating light on the dashboard to indicate issues with the coolant temperature.
Some cars don’t start if such an incident happens due to the safety clauses set by the manufacturer.
A car trip meter, also known as an odometer is a device used for measuring the distance traveled by the vehicle.
The odometer is an important aspect as far as maintenance is concerned because the odometer helps the users to record the distance covered by the vehicle after the last maintenance and replace important parts before the limit set by the manufacturer for optimum utility.
The odometer could be mechanical or digital based on your vehicle and it is located just below the speedometer.
Moreover, the odometer has the trip option (Trip A and B) available by pressing the button near the speedometer. This function helps the user to reset and calculate the distance covered after the reset.
A tachometer or rev counter is an indication device that measures and indicates the rotation speed of the crankshaft. The device displays the speed with revolutions per minute (RPM) unit.
The numbers indicated on the tachometer are usually multiplied by 1000 revolutions which are displayed near the speedometer and temperature gauge.
A cruise control feature may be an advanced form of technology used in cars but the number of cars with cruise control systems has increased dramatically in recent years.
It is a feature that helps reduce fatigue the drivers while driving over a long distance. The system automates the acceleration process and maintains the car at the same speed.
This reduces the constant need to press and release the accelerator pedal. The system uses a cable or wireless system which is connected to the ECU of the vehicle.
It maintains the throttle in a certain position to keep the pre-set speed.
The cruise control system is switched ON/OFF using a fork attached adjacent to the steering wheel. It can also be switched OFF if the driver presses the brake or accelerator.
Pneumatics is a branch of engineering that uses wind or high-pressure air to perform certain operations. A pneumatic system is a connection of various components such as (compressors, intercoolers, controllers, and actuators), that converts the pressure energy of compressed air into mechanical work.
Pneumatic systems are used where human strength and accuracy are not enough. Nowadays Pneumatic systems are widely used in various industries to automate several processes.
It not only lifts heavy loads and increases the accuracy but it also decreases the time period to perform certain activities.
Some of the most common examples of pneumatic systems are air brakes, pneumatic arms, pneumatic cable jetting, and pneumatic shock absorbers.
History of Pneumatic System:
Humans were familiar with pneumatics and the technology behind it since long ago. A blowgun was the first pneumatic device to be made in 429AD and was used to hunt down animals in the primitive age.
In the 1st century, a Greek mathematician, Hero of Alexandria, was the first one to write about pneumatic systems and how one can generate mechanical work from the energy generated by wind or pressurized air.
Influenced by him, the German physicist Otto von Guericke invented the first vacuum pump that can be used to displace objects using the high velocity of air.
The use of pneumatic systems grew in the 1800s. In the 1900s pneumatics became an essential feature of most modern industries.
Nowadays pneumatic systems can be seen everywhere right from large jet engines to the tiny dentist equipment used to clean teeth.
Pneumatic System Components:
The basic block diagram of a pneumatic system is given below.
Air contains various impurities such as pollen grains, dust particulate, soot, etc. These impurities need to be removed from the air before it enters a pneumatic circuit.
Hence an air filter is used to restrict these impurities from entering the pneumatic circuit. The air filter is a fibrous or porous material that traps the solid particulate and allows air to move in.
It may also contain some absorbent material such as charcoal that absorbs pollutant gas particles and soot.
As the name suggests the device used to compress the air is called an air compressor.
Generally, axial flow air compressors are used in pneumatic systems. These compressors have rotating blades called impellers that rotate with the help of a motor.
The impeller creates a vacuum that sucks the air via an air filter. The pressure of air at the outlet of the impeller is more than the atmospheric pressure.
The ratio of outlet pressure to the inlet pressure of the compressor is called the compression ratio. The compression ratio is different for different purposes.
A suitable motor is used to run the compressor in a pneumatic system.
The capacity of the motor depends on the size of the compressor and the power required to run the compressor. The motor is directly connected to the power supply.
Air temperature increases when the air is compressed in the compressor. This hot air is not suitable for further operation.
Hence it is important to cool down the hot air coming out of the air compressor. The cooling of air is done by an air cooler.
The main objective of an air cooler is to reduce the temperature and moisture content in the air coming out from the air compressor.
There are two types of commonly used air coolers.
Air-cooled air cooler.
Water-cooled air cooler.
In an air-cooled air cooler, the hot air is enclosed in pipes and cool air is forced on it with the help of a fan this cool air carries away heat from the hot air without decreasing the pressure.
While in the case of a water-cooled air cooler the heat is exchanged by indirect contact between the hot air from the compressor and cold water.
Much lower temperature can be obtained by a water-cooled air cooler than the air-cooled air-cooler. As cold water is available in large quantities, water-cooled air coolers are cost-effective and quick.
A storage reservoir is an air pressure vessel used to store compressed air under high pressure.
This storage device ensures a smooth supply of pressurized air and eliminates fluctuations caused due to loading and unloading of air demand.
Storage reservoirs play an important role in pneumatic systems as they ensure quick response to user demand. Storage reservoirs can store both dry and wet air depending on demand.
A storage reservoir must be strong, must have high tensile strength, and must be durable. Hence the commonly used materials for storage reservoirs are Mild steel, Aluminum, Carbon steel, and Stainless steel.
Storage reservoirs have several parts. Each part is first cut down into its required dimension. These parts are then assembled by welding and bending.
The full form of FRL is ‘ filter, regulator, and lubricator’ these three are generally used as one unit in a pneumatic system, but can also be used as different individual units.
FRL is an important component of a pneumatic system as it reduces losses and increases the efficiency of the system. The three basic functions of an FRL unit are as follows.
To filter out the wastewater, contaminants, and debris from the air coming out of the storage reservoir. This is done by filers and is generally the first step in an FRL unit.
The second function of the FRL unit is to regulate the pressure and restrict it from crossing the upper limit. This is done by a pressure regulator. Pressure regulation is an important step as it prevents damage to the system and also reduces unwanted losses due to high pressure.
The last stage of the FRL unit is air lubrication. In the air, lubrication is done by mixing a thin mist of oil or other lubricants into compressed air. This is generally done after filtration and regulation. This lubricated air reduces the friction between the moving parts of a pneumatic system and thus reduces the loss of energy and increases the life of the equipment.
If an FRL unit is not present in a pneumatic system it would decrease the life of the system, increase the energy consumption and reduce the efficiency of the system.
Directional control valve:
Directional control valves are the most important device used in a pneumatic system. The directional control valves or DVCs are used to control the direction and the amount of air entering the actuators.
The valves transfer the pressure energy of air to the actuators as per the command given by the operator. The generally used valve in a pneumatic system is a solenoid valve, also sometimes known as a spool valve.
These valves are operated by the action of a solenoid coil coupled with an electromagnet.
Actuators are devices that convert the pressure energy of fluid into mechanical movement. In the case of a pneumatic actuator the fluid used is air.
Actuators are the devices from which we get the results of pneumatic systems.
There are many types of actuators used in the industry. The actuators are classified based on the motion achieved by them.
Rack and pinion type
Pneumatic system Working:
The air comes into the compressor through an air filter due to the vacuum generated by the blades of the compressor
The air is filtered out in the air filter and then goes into the compressor.
The compressed air then enters the air cooler where the temperature of the air is reduced to improve the efficiency of the system.
This compressed cold air is then stored in the storage reservoir to make the air readily available.
The air then enters the FRL unit where it is filtered again, pressure is regulated and some oil is added to lubricate the air.
From the FRL unit, the air goes into the direction control valve where the air is sent according to the user’s action.
From DCV the air finally enters the actuator where the pressure energy is converted to mechanical work.
Difference between the Hydraulic System and the Pneumatic System:
The pneumatic system uses air as the working fluid.
The Hydraulic system uses oil as the working fluid.
This is an open-loop system.
This is a closed-loop system.
The construction of pneumatic systems is simple.
The construction of the hydraulic system is complex.
The cost of a pneumatic system is low
The cost of a hydraulic system is high
Pressure in the system is low hence the size is small.
The system’s internal pressure is high, hence the size is bigger.
Accuracy is less.
Accuracy is high.
The air inside the system is not flammable.
The oil inside the system is flammable.
The system does not corrode easily.
The system corrodes easily.
The power to size ratio is less.
The power to size ratio is more.
Advantages of Pneumatic System:
The air used is infinitely available.
The working medium is inflammable.
It is independent of the outside temperature.
The system is safe and tidy.
Generates instant mechanical work.
Corrosion problems are not severe.
Disadvantages of Pneumatic system:
The system is noisy.
There are often leaks in the system.
Low power-to-weight ratio.
Always prone to dust and contaminants.
Suitable only for low-pressure applications.
Applications of Pneumatic System:
Pneumatic systems have an infinite number of applications in today’s modern era. Some of the main applications of pneumatic systems are.